Experimental and numerical investigation of flow patterns in symmetrical spurs

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Konya Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, Konya and 42250, Turkey

2 Aksaray University, Civil Engineering Department, Aksaray and 68100, Turkey


Spurs are hydraulic structures used to protect riverbanks from erosion and to concentrate the flow on the river axis. As the flow approach the spurs, discontinuous in the streamlines are occurred and vortices form before the spurs. By placing the spurs in an open channel, scours occur before and after the spurs due to changes in flow conditions and velocities. Determination of velocity distributions around the spur accurately is extremely important for spur design. For a sustainable and hydraulically efficient spur design, flow velocities, flow conditions, sediment characteristics and stream morphology around the spur should be well investigated. In this study, the changing flow velocities and flow patterns on the upstream side of two spurs with were investigated. Two spur which have same geometry placed in an open channel system at an angle of 90o with the side wall. For 2 different discharge values (Q=17.66 lt/sn and Q=15.27 lt/sn), 3-Dimensional velocity measurements were made with ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) at 20 different points on the upstream side of the spurs. Velocity values obtained from the experiments were compared with the numerical models and gave consistent results with the numerical models. With these obtained velocity profiles, flow patterns are investigated.


Main Subjects

[1]          H. Zhang, H. Nakagawa, Investigation on Morphological Consequences of Spur Dyke with Experimental and Numerical Methods, 2008.
[2]          A. Moradinejad, M. Saneie, A. Ghaderi, S. M. Zamanieh Shahri, Experimental study of flow pattern and sediment behavior near the intake structures using the spur dike and skimming wall, Applied Water Science, Vol. 9, No. 8, pp. 1-11, 2019/11//, 2019.
[3]          M. M. Alemu, M. M. Alemu, Integrated Watershed Management and Sedimentation, Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 490-494, 2016/3//, 2016.
[4]          A. Yıldız, A. İ. Martı, M. Göğüş, Numerical and experimental modelling of flow at Tyrolean weirs, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 81, pp. 102040-102040, 2021/10//, 2021.
[5]          C. Gisonni, W. H. Hager, Spur Failure in River Engineering, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 134, No. 2, pp. 135-145, 2008/2//, 2008.
[6]          M. Pandey, Z. Ahmad, P. K. Sharma, Scour around impermeable spur dikes: a review, https://doi.org/10.1080/09715010.2017.1342571, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 25-44, 2017/1//, 2017.
[7]          M. Alauddin, M. M. Hossain, M. N. Uddin, M. E. Haque, A Review on Hydraulic and Morphological Characteristics in River Channels Due to Spurs, 2017/8//, 2017.
[8]          A. Safarzadeh, S. A. A. S. Neyshabouri, A. R. Zarrati, Experimental Investigation on 3D Turbulent Flow around Straight and T-Shaped Groynes in a Flat Bed Channel, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 142, No. 8, pp. 04016021-04016021, 2016/4//, 2016.
[9]          K. Hosseinzadeh, S. Roghani, A. R. Mogharrebi, A. Asadi, D. D. Ganji, Optimization of hybrid nanoparticles with mixture fluid flow in an octagonal porous medium by effect of radiation and magnetic field, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 143, No. 2, pp. 1413-1424, 2021/1//, 2021.
[10]        A. K. Rostami, K. Hosseinzadeh, D. D. Ganji, Hydrothermal analysis of ethylene glycol nanofluid in a porous enclosure with complex snowflake shaped inner wall, https://doi.org/10.1080/17455030.2020.1758358, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 1-18, 2020.
[11]        C. Özyaman, C. Yerdelen, E. Eris, R. Daneshfaraz, Experimental investigation of scouring around a single spur under clear water conditions, Water Supply, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 3484-3497, 2022/3//, 2022.
[12]        M. Koken, M. Gogus, Effect of spur dike length on the horseshoe vortex system and the bed shear stress distribution, https://doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2014.967819, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 196-206, 2014/3//, 2014.
[13]        A. N. Giglou, J. A. McCorquodale, L. Solari, Numerical study on the effect of the spur dikes on sedimentation pattern, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 2057-2066, 2018/12//, 2018.
[14]        J. Ning, G. Li, S. Li, Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Spur Dikes Spacing on Local Scour and Flow, Applied Sciences 2019, Vol. 9, Page 2306, Vol. 9, No. 11, pp. 2306-2306, 2019/6//, 2019.
[15]        K. Sharma, P. K. Mohapatra, Separation Zone in Flow past a Spur Dyke on Rigid Bed Meandering Channel, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 138, No. 10, pp. 897-901, 2012/3//, 2012.
[16]        M. Koken, Coherent structures around isolated spur dikes at various approach flow angles, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2011.616316, Vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 736-743, 2011/12//, 2011.
[17]        M. A. Imran, A. Shaheen, E. S. M. Sherif, M. Rahimi-Gorji, A. H. Seikh, Analysis of peristaltic flow of Jeffrey six constant nano fluid in a vertical non-uniform tube, Chinese Journal of Physics, Vol. 66, pp. 60-73, 2020/8//, 2020.
[18]        D. F. Jamil, S. Saleem, R. Roslan, F. S. Al-Mubaddel, M. Rahimi-Gorji, A. Issakhov, S. U. Din, Analysis of non-Newtonian magnetic Casson blood flow in an inclined stenosed artery using Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Vol. 203, pp. 106044-106044, 2021/5//, 2021.
[19]        M. Hassan, E. R. El-Zahar, S. U. Khan, M. Rahimi-Gorji, A. Ahmad, Boundary layer flow pattern of heat and mass for homogenous shear thinning hybrid-nanofluid: An experimental data base modeling, Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 1234-1249, 2021/3//, 2021.
[20]        K. G. Kumar, M. G. Reddy, P. Vijaya kumari, A. Aldalbahi, M. Rahimi-Gorji, M. Rahaman, Application of different hybrid nanofluids in convective heat transport of Carreau fluid, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 141, pp. 110350-110350, 2020/12//, 2020.
[21]        M. Koken, G. Constantinescu, An investigation of the flow and scour mechanisms around isolated spur dikes in a shallow open channel: 1. Conditions corresponding to the initiation of the erosion and deposition process, Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, No. 8, pp. 8406-8406, 2008/8//, 2008.
Volume 54, Issue 3
September 2023
Pages 425-436
  • Receive Date: 02 September 2023
  • Revise Date: 17 September 2023
  • Accept Date: 20 September 2023