Biomechanical differences between individuals with chronic ankle instability, copers and healthy controls in the countermovement jump on the force plate

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Physiotherapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Physiotherapy, Hamadan university of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

3 Department of Physiotherapy, JundiShapour University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran


To evaluate the counter-movement jump task in chronic ankle instability (CAI), copers and healthy subjects. Seventy-five subjects (25 CAI, 25 coper and 25 healthy) participated in the present study. Time to stabilization (TTS) and dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) after counter-movement jump-landing task on a force plate in both legs of each participant were assessed. To compare those three groups, One-way Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc test was used. Pair t-test was utilized to demonstrate the probable changes within group. Using one-way Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc testing, the CAI group displayed significant difference in the medial/lateral (ML) TTS and also DPSI in the vertical plane, and in the composite score than the healthy and coper groups. No significant difference was found between dominant and non-dominant legs in each group based on Pair t-test. Significant different dynamic postural stability was demonstrated in CAI group compared with copers and healthy control. It can be suggested that dynamic postural control strategies should be take into account in their rehabilitation programs. No difference between landings on dominant or nondominant leg can suggest central mechanisms for functional ankle instability.


[1]          A. Mettler, L. Chinn, S. A. Saliba, P. O. McKeon, J. Hertel, Balance training and center-of-pressure location in participants with chronic ankle instability, Journal of athletic training, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 343-349, 2015.
[2]          E. A. Wikstrom, M. D. Tillman, P. A. Borsa, Detection of dynamic stability deficits in subjects with functional ankle instability, Medicine and science in sports and exercise, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 169-175, 2005.
[3]          T. Croy, S. Saliba, E. Saliba, M. W. Anderson, J. Hertel, Differences in lateral ankle laxity measured via stress ultrasonography in individuals with chronic ankle instability, ankle sprain copers, and healthy individuals, journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 593-600, 2012.
[4]          R. S. McCann, I. D. Crossett, M. Terada, K. B. Kosik, B. A. Bolding, P. A. Gribble, Hip strength and star excursion balance test deficits of patients with chronic ankle instability, Journal of science and medicine in sport, Vol. 20, No. 11, pp. 992-996, 2017.
[5]          J. D. Simpson, E. M. Stewart, D. M. Macias, H. Chander, A. C. Knight, Individuals with chronic ankle instability exhibit dynamic postural stability deficits and altered unilateral landing biomechanics: A systematic review, Physical Therapy in Sport, Vol. 37, pp. 210-219, 2019.
[6]          E. A. Wikstrom, M. D. Tillman, K. J. Kline, P. A. Borsa, Gender and limb differences in dynamic postural stability during landing, Clinical journal of sport medicine, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 311-315, 2006.
[7]          C. Doherty, C. Bleakley, J. Hertel, B. Caulfield, J. Ryan, E. Delahunt, Dynamic balance deficits in individuals with chronic ankle instability compared to ankle sprain copers 1 year after a first-time lateral ankle sprain injury, Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 1086-1095, 2016.
[8]          P. A. Gribble, J. Hertel, P. Plisky, Using the Star Excursion Balance Test to assess dynamic postural-control deficits and outcomes in lower extremity injury: a literature and systematic review, Journal of athletic training, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 339-357, 2012.
[9]          L. C. Olmsted, C. R. Carcia, J. Hertel, S. J. Shultz, Efficacy of the star excursion balance tests in detecting reach deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability, Journal of athletic training, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 501, 2002.
[10]        P. A. Gribble, E. Delahunt, C. Bleakley, B. Caulfield, C. Docherty, F. Fourchet, D. Fong, J. Hertel, C. Hiller, T. Kaminski, Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium, journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, Vol. 43, No. 8, pp. 585-591, 2013.
[11]        E. A. Wikstrom, M. D. Tillman, T. L. Chmielewski, J. H. Cauraugh, K. E. Naugle, P. A. Borsa, Discriminating between copers and people with chronic ankle instability, Journal of athletic training, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 136-142, 2012.
[12]        M. Hoffman, J. Schrader, T. Applegate, D. Koceja, Unilateral postural control of the functionally dominant and nondominant extremities of healthy subjects, Journal of athletic training, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 319, 1998.
[13]        E. A. Wikstrom, C. N. Brown, Minimum reporting standards for copers in chronic ankle instability research, Sports Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 251-268, 2014.
[14]        C. Brown, S. Ross, R. Mynark, K. Guskiewicz, Assessing functional ankle instability with joint position sense, time to stabilization, and electromyography, Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 122-134, 2004.
[15]        S. Mohamadi, M. Salavati, A. S. Jafarpishe, Use a biomechanical experimental setup to analysis the reliability of force plate postural control parameters in chronic ankle instability patients, copers and healthy control, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 183-189, 2022.
[16]        J. Hertel, W. E. Buckley, C. R. Denegar, Serial testing of postural control after acute lateral ankle sprain, Journal of athletic training, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 363, 2001.
[17]        S. E. Ross, K. M. Guskiewicz, Time to stabilization: a method for analyzing dynamic postural stability, International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 37-39, 2003.
[18]        C. J. Wright, B. L. Arnold, S. E. Ross, Altered kinematics and time to stabilization during drop-jump landings in individuals with or without functional ankle instability, Journal of athletic training, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 5-15, 2016.
[19]        C. N. Brown, B. Bowser, A. Orellana, Dynamic postural stability in females with chronic ankle instability, Med Sci Sports Exerc, Vol. 42, No. 12, pp. 2258-2263, 2010.
[20]        P. A. Gribble, J. Hertel, C. R. Denegar, W. E. Buckley, The effects of fatigue and chronic ankle instability on dynamic postural control, Journal of athletic training, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 321, 2004.
[21]        K. B. Kosik, P. A. Gribble, The effect of joint mobilization on dynamic postural control in patients with chronic ankle instability: a critically appraised topic, Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 103-108, 2018.
Volume 53, Issue 3
September 2022
Pages 356-362
  • Receive Date: 21 September 2022
  • Accept Date: 30 September 2022