Lateral safety enhancement in a full dynamic vehicle model based on series active variable-geometry suspension

Document Type : Research Paper


School of Automotive Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology



Today, the importance of providing safety and stability while paying attention to the ride comfort and providing road holding is of paramount importance. This issue has become more important due to the many accidents related to vehicle rollover. In this article, an attempt has been made to reduce the risk of rollover prevention of the vehicle while paying attention to the needs of the occupant and the road. In this research, an attempt has been made to reduce the overall acceleration of the GT vehicle by using a series of active variable geometry suspensions and by using a variety of control strategies such as Fuzzy PID, LQR, Sliding mode. In previous works, PID and Skyhook controllers have been used. However, in this study, the choice of the controllers is based on attention to accuracy and optimization while pay attention to control aims. This study was performed in conditions of severe asymmetric roughness and cornering maneuvers. The examination of the results shows an improvement of more than 20% for the goal of vehicle stability while providing other suspension goals. This performance improvement occurs with the effect of suspending variable geometry along with the use of a suitable controller. It should also be noted that the improvement achieved by consuming energy is far less than other suspensions, which is the strength of the research.


[1]   M. R. Pfeiffer, Analysis of Pedestrian Injuries by Passenger Vehicle Model Year, United States. Department of Transportation. National Highway Traffic Safety …,  pp. 2020.
[2]   M. Ataei, A. Khajepour, S. Jeon, Model predictive rollover prevention for steer-by-wire vehicles with a new rollover index, International Journal of Control, Vol. 93, No. 1, pp. 140-155, 2020.
[3]   B. Mashadi, M. Mokhtari-Alehashem, H. Mostaghimi, Active vehicle rollover control using a gyroscopic device, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Vol. 230, No. 14, pp. 1958-1971, 2016.
[4]   Y. Chen, Modeling, Control, and Design Study of Balanced Pneumatic Suspension for Improved Roll Stability in Heavy Trucks,  Thesis, Virginia Tech, 2017.
[5]   M. Baghani, M. Mohammadi, A. Farajpour, Dynamic and stability analysis of the rotating nanobeam in a nonuniform magnetic field considering the surface energy, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 8, No. 04, pp. 1650048, 2016.
[6]   H. Li, Y. Zhao, H. Wang, F. Lin, Design of an improved predictive LTR for rollover warning systems, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 3779-3791, 2017.
[7]   Y. Chen, M. Ahmadian, A. Peterson, Pneumatically balanced heavy truck air suspensions for improved roll stability,  0148-7191, SAE Technical Paper,  pp. 2015.
[8]   B.-C. Chen, H. Peng, Differential-braking-based rollover prevention for sport utility vehicles with human-in-the-loop evaluations, Vehicle system dynamics, Vol. 36, No. 4-5, pp. 359-389, 2001.
[9]   L. Li, Y. Lu, R. Wang, J. Chen, A three-dimensional dynamics control framework of vehicle lateral stability and rollover prevention via active braking with MPC, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, No. 4, pp. 3389-3401, 2016.
[10] S. Solmaz, M. Akar, R. Shorten, Adaptive rollover prevention for automotive vehicles with differential braking, IFAC Proceedings Volumes, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 4695-4700, 2008.
[11] S. Solmaz, M. Corless, R. Shorten, A methodology for the design of robust rollover prevention controllers for automotive vehicles with active steering, International Journal of Control, Vol. 80, No. 11, pp. 1763-1779, 2007.
[12] J. Wu, Y. Zhao, X. Ji, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention, Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 285-293, 2015.
[13] M. Kamal, T. Shim, Development of active suspension control for combined handling and rollover propensity enhancement,  0148-7191, SAE Technical Paper,  pp. 2007.
[14] S. Solmaz, Switched stable control design methodology applied to vehicle rollover prevention based on switched suspension settings, IET control theory & applications, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 1104-1112, 2011.
[15] S. Yim, Y. Park, K. Yi, Design of active suspension and electronic stability program for rollover prevention, International journal of automotive technology, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 147-153, 2010.
[16] S. Yim, Design of a robust controller for rollover prevention with active suspension and differential braking, Journal of mechanical science and technology, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 213-222, 2012.
[17] S. R. Asemi, M. Mohammadi, A. Farajpour, A study on the nonlinear stability of orthotropic single-layered graphene sheet based on nonlocal elasticity theory, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 11, No. 9, pp. 1515-1540, 2014.
[18] C. Cheng, S. A. Evangelou, Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension Robust Control Based on Full-Vehicle Dynamics, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol. 141, No. 5, 2019.
[19] P. Múčka, Simulated road profiles according to ISO 8608 in vibration analysis, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 405-418, 2017.
[20] J. Wong, Vehicle Ride Characteristics, Theory of Ground Vehicles, pp. 348-392, 1993.
[21] S. Nazemi, M. Maish-Tehrani, Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension Fuzzy-Logic Control for a GT Car on a Rough Road.
[22] I. Cvok, J. Deur, H. E. Tseng, D. Hrovat, Comparative Performance Analysis of Active and Semi-active Suspensions with Road Preview Control, in Proceeding of, Springer, pp. 1808-1818.
[23] M. R. Ha’iri-Yazdi, A. Safaei, V. Esfahanian, M. Masih-Tehrani, Design of the Online Optimal Control Strategy for a Hydraulic Hybrid Bus, Journal of Control, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 1-10, 2014.
[24] M. Shirzadeh, M. H. Shojaeefard, A. Amirkhani, H. Behroozi, Adaptive fuzzy nonlinear sliding-mode controller for a car-like robot, in Proceeding of, IEEE, pp. 686-691.
[25] A. Najafi, A. Amirkhani, K. Mohammadi, A. Naimi, A novel soft computing method based on interval type-2 fuzzy logic for classification of celiac disease, in Proceeding of, IEEE, pp. 257-262.
[26] A. Farajpour, A. Rastgoo, M. Mohammadi, Vibration, buckling and smart control of microtubules using piezoelectric nanoshells under electric voltage in thermal environment, Physica B: Condensed Matter, Vol. 509, pp. 100-114, 2017.
[27] C. Conker, M. K. Baltacioglu, Fuzzy self-adaptive PID control technique for driving HHO dry cell systems, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2020.
[28] J. Marzbanrad, Y. HOJAT, H. ZOHOUR, S. Nikravesh, Optimal preview control design of an active suspension based on a full car model, 2003.
[29] M. Mohammadi, M. Hosseini, M. Shishesaz, A. Hadi, A. Rastgoo, Primary and secondary resonance analysis of porous functionally graded nanobeam resting on a nonlinear foundation subjected to mechanical and electrical loads, European Journal of Mechanics-A/Solids, Vol. 77, pp. 103793, 2019.
[30] M. A. Khan, M. Abid, N. Ahmed, A. Wadood, H. Park, Nonlinear Control Design of a Half-Car Model Using Feedback Linearization and an LQR Controller, Applied Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 9, pp. 3075, 2020.
[31] G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, M. L. Workman, 1998, Digital control of dynamic systems, Addison-wesley Reading, MA,
[32] B. Xu, C. Song, Y. Tan, Research on LQR Control of Magnetic Suspension Active Vibration Isolation System Based on Multi-population Genetic Algorithm, in Proceeding of, Springer, pp. 672-688.
[33] W. Perruquetti, J.-P. Barbot, 2002, Sliding mode control in engineering, CRC press,
[34] Y. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Mao, Y. Du, J. Chen, S. Yang, Height stability control of a large sprayer body based on air suspension using the sliding mode approach, Information Processing in Agriculture, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 20-29, 2020.
[35] C. Zhou, X. Liu, F. Xu, W. Chen, Sliding Mode Switch Control of Adjustable Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension based on Parallel Adaptive Clonal Selection Algorithm, Applied Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 1852, 2020. 
Volume 52, Issue 1
March 2021
Pages 154-167
  • Receive Date: 02 October 2020
  • Revise Date: 10 March 2021
  • Accept Date: 10 April 2021