Material Nonlinear Static Analysis of Axially Functionally Graded Porous Bar Elements

Document Type : Research Paper


Bursa Technical University, Mimar Sinan Campus, Bursa, 16310, Turkey


This investigation presents material nonlinear analysis of a cantilever bar element made of functionally graded material with porosity properties. The material properties of bar element are considered as changing though axial direction based on the Power-Law distribution and uniform porosity distribution. The stress-strain relation of the material is considered as a nonlinear property according to a Power-Law function. The cantilever bar element is subjected to a point load at the free end. In order to obtain more realistic solution for the nonlinear problem and axially material distribution, nonlinear finite element method is used. In the obtaining of finite element equations, the virtual work principle is used and, after linearization step, the tangent stiffness matrix and residual vector are obtained. In the nonlinear solution process, the incremental force method is implemented and, each load step, the nonlinear equations are solved by using the Newton-Raphson iteration method. In the numerical results, effects of material nonlinearity parameters, porosity coefficients, material distribution parameter and aspect ratios on nonlinear static deflections of the bar are presented and discussed. The obtained results show that the material nonlinear behaviour of the bar element is considerably affected with porosity and material graduation.


Main Subjects

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Volume 55, Issue 2
April 2024
Pages 223-234
  • Receive Date: 25 February 2024
  • Accept Date: 01 March 2024