Parametric Study of the Impact of Windows to Wall Ratio on Reduction of Energy Consumption and Environmental Impact of a Zero-Energy Building in Different Orientations

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran


Nowadays, the increase of fossil fuel consumption intensifies the crucial role of architects. As buildings consume over one-third of the used energy, the society of architects is held responsible for this consumption. Therefore, the amount of energy used by a building is directly related to its design; meaning that reduction of energy consumption should be targeted at the design stage. In this research, the proper building form with the lowest energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting was obtained after studying different shapes in Design Builder Software, and it was concluded that the building form has a significant impact on energy consumption. After the parametric studies, the best building orientation of 60 degrees north-east and a window-wall ratio (WWR) of 40% was obtained. Moreover, the building considered for this study had annual CO2 emissions of 30 tons, which was reduced to around 15 tons of CO2 emissions in a year at the optimum degree and WWR, i.e. a reduction of CO2 emissions to half of its previous amount.


Main Subjects

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Volume 50, Issue 2
December 2019
Pages 295-302
  • Receive Date: 09 April 2019
  • Revise Date: 17 October 2019
  • Accept Date: 17 October 2019