Dynamic behaviour of concrete containing aggregate resonant frequency

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria

2 Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria


The need to design blast resistant civilian structures has arisen due to aggressor attacks on many civilian structures around the world. Achieving vibration and wave attenuation with locally resonant metamaterials has attracted a great deal of consideration due to their frequency dependent negative effective mass density. In this paper, metaconcrete, a new material with exceptional properties is formed. The aggregates in concrete are substituted with spherical inclusions consisting of a heavy metal core coated with a soft outer layer. The physics of the metamaterial was first established, and mass in mass-spring and effective mass system were shown to be equivalent. Then the engineered aggregate was tuned so that band gap was activated due to resonant oscillations of the replaced aggregate. In the numerical experiment conducted, the resonant behaviour causes the wave to be forbidden in the targeted frequencies. The proposed metaconcrete could be very useful in various civil engineering applications where vibration suspension and wave attenuation ability are in high demand.


Main Subjects

[1]      H. H. Huang, C. T. Sun, G. L. Huang, On the negative effective mass density in acoustic metamaterials, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 610-617, 2009/04/01/, 2009.

[2]      Y. Wu, Y. Lai, Z.-Q. Zhang, Elastic metamaterials with simultaneously negative effective shear modulus and mass density, Physical review letters, Vol. 107, No. 10, pp. 105506, 2011.

[3]      Y. Li, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Plate-type elastic metamaterials for low-frequency broadband elastic wave attenuation, Ultrasonics, Vol. 73, pp. 34-42, 2017.

[4]      X. Zhou, X. Liu, G. Hu, Elastic metamaterials with local resonances: an overview, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2012.

[5]      A. Khelif, Y. Achaoui, B. Aoubiza, Locally Resonant Structures for Low Frequency Surface Acoustic Band Gap Applications,  in: Acoustic Metamaterials, Eds., pp. 43-59: Springer, 2013.

[6]      Z. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Mao, Y. Zhu, Z. Yang, C. T. Chan, P. Sheng, Locally resonant sonic materials, science, Vol. 289, No. 5485, pp. 1734-1736, 2000.

[7]      X. Wang, Dynamic behaviour of a metamaterial system with negative mass and modulus, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 51, No. 7-8, pp. 1534-1541, 2014.

[8]      A. Movchan, S. Guenneau, Split-ring resonators and localized modes, Physical Review B, Vol. 70, No. 12, pp. 125116, 2004.

[9]      N. Fang, D. Xi, J. Xu, M. Ambati, W. Srituravanich, C. Sun, X. Zhang, Ultrasonic metamaterials with negative modulus, Nature materials, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 452, 2006.

[10]   Z. G. Wang, S. H. Lee, C. K. Kim, C. M. Park, K. Nahm, S. Nikitov, Acoustic wave propagation in one-dimensional phononic crystals containing Helmholtz resonators, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, No. 6, pp. 064907, 2008.

[11]   K. T. Tan, H. Huang, C. Sun, Blast-wave impact mitigation using negative effective mass density concept of elastic metamaterials, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Vol. 64, pp. 20-29, 2014.

[12]   S. H. Lee, O. B. Wright, Origin of negative density and modulus in acoustic metamaterials, Physical Review B, Vol. 93, No. 2, pp. 024302, 2016.

[13]   J. S. Jensen, Phononic band gaps and vibrations in one-and two-dimensional mass–spring structures, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 266, No. 5, pp. 1053-1078, 2003.

[14]   R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega‐Moñux, C. Alonso‐Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert‐Pérez, Í. Molina‐Fernández, Waveguide sub‐wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications, Laser & Photonics Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 25-49, 2015.

[15]   Y.-J. Park, A. H.-S. Ang, Mechanistic seismic damage model for reinforced concrete, Journal of structural engineering, Vol. 111, No. 4, pp. 722-739, 1985.

[16]   X. Kong, Q. Fang, H. Wu, J. Hong, A comparison of strain-rate enhancement approaches for concrete material subjected to high strain-rate, International Journal of Protective Structures, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 155-176, 2017.

[17]   P. Aggarwal, R. Siddique, Y. Aggarwal, S. M. Gupta, Self-compacting concrete-procedure for mix design, Leonardo electronic journal of practices and technologies, Vol. 12, pp. 15-24, 2008.

[18]   J. Dewar, Concrete mix design, 2003.

[19]   C. T. Kennedy, The design of concrete mixes, in Proceeding of, 373-400.

[20]   S. J. Mitchell, A. Pandolfi, M. Ortiz, Metaconcrete: designed aggregates to enhance dynamic performance, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 65, pp. 69-81, 2014.

[21]   D. Briccola, M. Ortiz, A. Pandolfi, Experimental validation of metaconcrete blast mitigation properties, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 84, No. 3, pp. 031001, 2017.

[22]   S. J. Mitchell, A. Pandolfi, M. Ortiz, Investigation of elastic wave transmission in a metaconcrete slab, Mechanics of Materials, Vol. 91, pp. 295-303, 2015.

[23]   Y. Lu, K. Xu, Modelling of dynamic behaviour of concrete materials under blast loading, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 131-143, 2004.

[24]   M. Zineddin, T. Krauthammer, Dynamic response and behavior of reinforced concrete slabs under impact loading, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 9, pp. 1517-1534, 2007.

[25]   G. Hu, L. Tang, R. Das, S. Gao, H. Liu, Acoustic metamaterials with coupled local resonators for broadband vibration suppression, AIP Advances, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 025211, 2017.

[26]   S. Yao, X. Zhou, G. Hu, Experimental study on negative effective mass in a 1D mass–spring system, New Journal of Physics, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 043020, 2008.

[27]   H.-H. Huang, Dynamic characteristics of an acoustic metamaterial with locally resonant microstructures,  Thesis, Purdue University, 2009.

[28]   C. Albertini, E. Cadoni, K. Labibes, Study of the mechanical properties of plain concrete under dynamic loading, Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 137-141, June 01, 1999.

[29]   L. Yuan, T. Xu, Q. Xu, Spallation of Concrete under Dynamic Loading: Mesh Size Effect, in Proceeding of, Trans Tech Publ, pp. 929-933.

[30]   S. Wang, M.-H. Zhang, S. T. Quek, Mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete subjected to high strain-rate compressive loading, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 31, pp. 1-11, 2012.