Multi-objective Optimization of web profile of railway wheel using Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization

Document Type: Research Paper


1 School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University-Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran.


In this paper, multi-objective optimization of railway wheel web profile using bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) algorithm is investigated. Using a finite element software, static analysis of the wheel based on a standard load case, and its modal analysis for finding the fundamental natural frequency is performed. The von Mises stress and critical frequency as the problem objectives are combined using different weight factors in order to find the sensitivity number in the method, which specifies which elements to be omitted and which to be added. The iterative process is continued until convergence to an a priori specified material volume. The resulted web profiles show that when the stress is important, material removal is from the middle part of the web, while for frequency as the important objective, the removal is from near the rim part of the web. The suggested profile, corresponding to equal weight factor for the objectives, has a better volume and stress state compared to a standard web profile, and has a more uniform stress distribution. However, higher natural frequency, compared to that of the standard profile, are obtained for larger frequency weight factors, although with a bigger volume. In the end, considering manufacturability of the wheel, the jagged profile resulted from BESO is replaced with a fitted smooth curve and performing the finite element analysis on it. It is seen that there is an improvement in the obtained objectives for the smoothened profile, with no significant change in volume.


Main Subjects

[1] Xie, Y.M. and G.P. Steven, A simple evolutionary procedure for structural optimization. Computers & structures, 1993. 49(5): p. 885-896.

[2] Manickarajah, D., Y. Xie, and G. Steven, Optimisation of columns and frames against buckling. Computers & Structures, 2000. 75(1): p. 45-54.

[3] Huang, X. and Y. Xie, Convergent and mesh-independent solutions for the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization method. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 2007. 43(14): p. 1039-1049.

[4] Shabani Nodehi .S, S. R. Falahatgar, R. Ansari, Studying the   effects of design parameters on the final topology of planar structures by improved bi-directional evolutionary Structural optimization method, Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 29-38, 2016. (in Persian)

[5] Shobeiri, V., The topology optimization design for cracked structures. Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 2015. 58: p. 26-38.

[6] Cazacu R, Grama L. Overview of structural topology optimization methods for plane and solid structures. Annals of the University of Oradea, Fascicle of Management and Technological Engineering. 2014 Dec.

[7] Farzanegan.M,A.Ohadi Esfehani, S. H. Hoseini, Investigating the effect of web curvature of wagon wheel on itsphysical performance using, FEM,15th annual international ISME conference, 2007. (in Persian)

[8] Fermér, M., Optimization of a railway freight car wheel by use of a fractional factorial design method. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 1994. 208(2): p. 97-107.

[9] Hirakawa, K. and H. Sakamoto, Effect of design variation on railroad wheel fracture. ASME paper, 1981.

[10] Huang, X. and M. Xie, Evolutionary topology optimization of continuum structures: methods and applications. 2010: John Wiley & Sons.

[11] Liang, Q.Q., Y.M. Xie, and G.P. Steven, Optimal topology selection of continuum structures with displacement constraints. Computers & Structures, 2000. 77(6): p. 635-644.

[12] Cho, K.-H., J.Y. Park, S.P. Ryu, S.Y. Han., Reliability-based topology optimization based on bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization using multi-objective sensitivity numbers. International Journal of Automotive Technology, 2011. 12(6): p. 849-856.

[13] Code, U., 510-2, 2004. Trailing stock: wheels and wheelsets. Conditions concerning the use of wheels of various diameters.

[14] U. Code, 515-1, 2003, Passenger rolling stock – Trailer bogies –Running gear – General provisions applicable to the components of trailers bogies.

[15] U. Code, 861-3 Leaflet 1991, International Union of Railways, 3rd ed.

[16] EN, B., 13979-1. Railway Application-Wheelsets and Bogies-Monobloc Wheels-Technical Approval ProcedurePart1: Forged and Rolled Wheels, 2003.

Volume 48, Issue 2
December 2017
Pages 307-318
  • Receive Date: 09 July 2017
  • Revise Date: 14 September 2017
  • Accept Date: 20 September 2017