Analysis and Optimization using Renewable Energies to Get Net-Zero Energy Building for Warm Climate

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran


Due to low energy price, economic optimization of consumption has no justification for users in Iran. Nowadays, the issue of ending fossil fuels, production of greenhouse gases and the main role of building in consumption of considerable amount of energy has drawn the focus of global researches to a new concept called net zero energy building. In this study, modeling, simulation and energy analysis have been used for considered building in Zahedan weather condition which has a dry and warm climate to draw the related equations and perform analysis. Multi-Objective optimization has been performed for simultaneous reduction of total energy consumption and total cost where the main decision making variables including thermal comfort, cooling, heating and lighting systems and other variables have been influential. The comparison of an ordinary optimized building and the intended optimized building which uses renewable energy resources indicates that it is possible to get to net zero energy building in addition to selling surplus 2 MWh electrical energy to electricity grid with simultaneous use of solar and wind renewable energies.


Main Subjects

[1] S. Farahat, M. MahdaviAdeli, 2015, Renewable energies & Their Optimum Consumption, Ahwaz Medical Science and Technology Publishing, second editioned. (in Persian)
[2] A. J. Marszal, P. Heiselberg, J. S. Bourrelle, E. Musall, K. Voss, I. Sartori, A. Napolitano, Zero Energy Building – A review of definitions and calculation methodologies, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 971-979, 2011.
[3] S. Deng, R. Z. Wang, Y. J. Dai, How to evaluate performance of net zero energy building – A literature research, Energy, Vol. 71, pp. 1-16, 2014.
[4] J. Kneifel, D. Webb, Predicting energy performance of a net-zero energy building: A statistical approach, Applied Energy, Vol. 178, pp. 468-483, 2016.
[5] P. M. Congedo, C. Baglivo, D. D'Agostino, I. Zacà, Cost-optimal design for nearly zero energy office buildings located in warm climates, Energy, Vol. 91, pp. 967-982, 2015.
[6] S. Guillén-Lambea, B. Rodríguez-Soria, J. M. Marín, Comfort settings and energy demand for residential nZEB in warm climates, Applied Energy, Vol. 202, pp. 471-486, 2017.
[7] F. Ascione, N. Bianco, O. Böttcher, R. Kaltenbrunner, G. P. Vanoli, Net zero-energy buildings in Germany: Design, model calibration and lessons learned from a case-study in Berlin, energy and Buildings, Vol. 133, pp. 688-710, 2016.
[8] F. Ascione, N. Bianco, R. F. De Masi, G. M. Mauro, G. P. Vanoli, Energy retrofit of educational buildings: Transient energy simulations, model calibration and multi-objective optimization towards nearly zero-energy performance, energy and Buildings, Vol. 144, pp. 303-319, 2017.
[9] F. Ascione, N. Bianco, C. De Stasio, G. M. Mauro, G. P. Vanoli, A new methodology for cost-optimal analysis by means of the multi-objective optimization of building energy performance, energy and Buildings, Vol. 88, pp. 78-90, 2015.
[10] A. Boyano, P. Hernandez, O. Wolf, Energy demands and potential savings in European office buildings: Case studies based on EnergyPlus simulations, energy and Buildings, Vol. 65, pp. 19-28, 2013.
[11] P. Moran, J. Goggins, M. Hajdukiewicz, Super-insulate or use renewable technology? Life cycle cost, energy and global warming potential analysis of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB) in a temperate oceanic climate, energy and Buildings, Vol. 139, pp. 590-607, 2017.
[12] N. Delgarm, B. Sajadi, S. Delgarm, Multi-objective optimization of building energy performance and indoor thermal comfort: A new method using artificial bee colony (ABC), energy and Buildings, Vol. 131, pp. 42-53, 2016.
[13] S. Berry, D. Whaley, K. Davidson, W. Saman, Near zero energy homes – What do users think?, Energy Policy, Vol. 73, pp. 127-137, 2014.
[14] M. Marta, L. M. Belinda, Simplified model to determine the energy demand of existing buildings. Case study of social housing in Zaragoza, Spain, energy and Buildings, Vol. 149, pp. 483-493, 2017.
[15] L. Olatomiwa, S. Mekhilef, M. S. Ismail, M. Moghavvemi, Energy management strategies in hybrid renewable energy systems: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 62, pp. 821-835, 2016.
[16] P. Brinks, O. Kornadt, R. Oly, Development of concepts for cost-optimal nearly zero-energy buildings for the industrial steel building sector, Applied Energy, Vol. 173, pp. 343-354, 2016.
[17] M. Braulio-Gonzalo, M. D. Bovea, Environmental and cost performance of building’s envelope insulation materials to reduce energy demand: Thickness optimisation, energy and Buildings, Vol. 150, pp. 527-545, 2017.
[18] A. Buonomano, G. De Luca, U. Montanaro, A. Palombo, Innovative technologies for NZEBs: An energy and economic analysis tool and a case study of a non-residential building for the Mediterranean climate, energy and Buildings, Vol. 121, pp. 318-343, 2016.
[19] E. Cuce, P. M. Cuce, C. J. Wood, S. B. Riffat, Optimizing insulation thickness and analysingenvironmental impacts of aerogel-based thermal superinsulation in buildings, energy and Buildings, Vol. 77, pp. 28-39, 2014.
[20] J. Eshraghi, N. Narjabadifam, N. Mirkhani, S. SadoughiKhosroshahi, M. Ashjaee, A comprehensive feasibility study of applying solar energy to design a zero energy building for a typical home in Tehran, energy and Buildings, Vol. 72, pp. 329-339, 2014.
[21] M. Ferrara, E. Fabrizio, J. Virgone, M. Filippi, A simulation-based optimization method for cost-optimal analysis of nearly Zero Energy Buildings, energy and Buildings, Vol. 84, pp. 442-457, 2014.
[22] M. Ferrara, E. Fabrizio, J. Virgone, M. Filippi, Energy systems in cost-optimized design of nearly zero-energy buildings, Automation in Construction, Vol. 70, pp. 109-127, 2016.
[23] K. F. Fong, V. I. Hanby, T. T. Chow, HVAC system optimization for energy management by evolutionary programming, energy and Buildings, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 220-231, 2006.
[24] K. F. Fong, V. I. Hanby, T. T. Chow, system optimization for HVAC energy management using the robust evolutionary algorithm, , Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 11, pp. 2327-2334, 2009.
[25] E. H. Mathews, C. P. Botha, D. C. Arndt, A. Malan, HVAC control strategies to enhance comfort and minimise energy usage, energy and Buildings, Vol. 33, No. 8, pp. 853-863, 2001.
[26] C. Good, I. Andresen, A. G. Hestnes, Solar energy for net zero energy buildings – A comparison between solar thermal, PV and photovoltaic–thermal (PV/T) systems, Solar Energy, Vol. 122, pp. 986-996, 2015.
[27] W. Lin, Z. Ma, P. Cooper, M. ImrozSohel, L. Yang, Thermal performance investigation and optimization of buildings with integrated phase change materials and solar photovoltaic thermal collectors, energy and Buildings, Vol. 116, pp. 562-573, 2016.
[28] E. Pikas, J. Kurnitski, M. Thalfeldt, L. Koskela, Cost-benefit analysis of nZEB energy efficiency strategies with on-site photovoltaic generation, Energy, Vol. 128, pp. 291-301, 2017.
 [29]        E. Pikas, M. Thalfeldt, J. Kurnitski, R. Liias, Extra cost analyses of two apartment buildings for achieving nearly zero and low energy buildings, Energy, Vol. 84, pp. 623-633, 2015.
[30] P. Torcellini, S. Pless, M. Deru, 2006, Zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look at the Definition, ", National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),
[31] M. Kapsalaki, V. Leal, M. Santamouris, A methodology for economic efficient design of Net Zero Energy Buildings, energy and Buildings, Vol. 55, pp. 765-778, 2012.
[32] National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2015.
[33] D. E. (n.d.), Department of Energy, Building Technologies Office: EnergyPlusEnergySimulation Software, 2015.
[34] F. Sarhaddi, S. Farahat, H. Ajam, A. Behzadmehr, M. MahdaviAdeli, An improved thermal and electrical model for a solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collector, Applied Energy, Vol. 87, No. 7, pp. 2328-2339, 2010

Volume 48, Issue 2
December 2017
Pages 331-344
  • Receive Date: 31 August 2017
  • Revise Date: 28 September 2017
  • Accept Date: 05 October 2017