2015
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Vibration analysis of double bonded composite pipe reinforced by BNNTs conveying oil
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55092.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55092
1
In the present research, nonlinear vibration in a coupled system of BoronNitride nanotube reinforced composite (BNNTRC) oil pipes is studied. Singlewalled BoronNitride nanotubes (SWBNNTs) are arranged in a longitudinal direction inside Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix. Damping and shearing effects of surrounded medium are taken into account by viscoPasternak model. Based on piezoelectric fiber reinforced composite (PFRC) theory, properties of smart coupled BNNTRC oil pipes are obtained. The equations of motion as well as the boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton’s principle. The effects of various parameters such as volume fraction and orientation angle of fibers, viscosity and density of fluid on stability of coupled BNNTRC oil pipes are investigated. Results indicate that stability of smart composite system is strongly dependent on angle orientation and volume percent of BNNTs. Results of this investigation can be used in oil refineries.
0

93
105


Ali
Ghorbanpour Arani
1. Institute of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Iran
2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran
Iran
aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir


Elham
Haghparast
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran
Iran
elhm.haghparast@yahoo.com


Zahra
Khoddami Maraghi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran
Iran
z.khoddami@gmail.com
Coupled oil pipes
Polymeric nanocomposite
Viscoelastic foundation
PFRC theory
[[1]. Shu, C. (1996). “Free vibration analysis of composite laminated conical shells by generalized differential quadrature.” J. Sound. Vib., vol. 194, PP. 587604.##[2]. Kadoli, R. and Ganesan, N. (2003). “Free vibration and buckling analysis of composite cylindrical shells conveying hot fluid.” Compos. Struct., vol. 60 , PP. 19–32.## [3]. Wang, X. and Zhong, Z. (2003). “Threedimensional solution of smart laminated anisotropic circular cylindrical shells with imperfect bonding.” Int. J. Solids. Struct., vol. 40 PP. 5901–5921.##[4]. SalehiKhojin, A. and Jalili, N. (2008). “Buckling of boron nitride nanotube reinforced##piezoelectric polymeric composites subject to combined electrothermomechanical loadings.” Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 68, PP. 14891501.##[5]. Amabili, M., Karagiozis, K. and Paidoussis, M.P. (2009). “Effect of geometric imperfections on nonlinear stability of circular cylindrical shells conveying fluid.” Int. J. Solids. Struct., vol. 44 , PP. 276–289.##[6]. Rahmani, O., Khalili, S.M.R. and Malekzadeh, K. (2009). “Free vibration response of composite sandwich cylindrical shell with flexible core.” Compos. Struct., vol. 92, PP. 1269–1281.## [7]. Zhou, X. and Wang, L. (2012). “Vibration and stability of microscale cylindrical shells conveying fluid based on modified couple stress theory.” Micro Nano Lett., vol. 7, PP. 679–684.##[8]. Ghorbanpour Arani, A., Amir, S., Shajari, A.R. and Mozdianfard, M.R. (2012). “Electrothermomechanical buckling of DWBNNTs embedded in bundle of CNTs using nonlocal piezoelasticity cylindrical shell theory.” Compos. Part B: Engineering., vol. 43, PP. 195203.##[9]. Ghorbanpour Arani, A., Shokravi, M., Amir, S. and Mozdianfard, M.R. (2012). “Nonlocal electrothermal transverse vibration of embedded fluidconveying DWBNNTs.” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., vol. 26 , PP. 14551462.##[10]. Ghorbanpour Arani, A., Shajari, A.R., Amir, S. and Loghman, A. (2012). “Electrothermomechanical nonlinear nonlocal vibration and instability of embedded microtube reinforced by BNNT, conveying fluid.” Physica E., vol. 45, PP. 109–121.##[11]. Ghorbanpour Arani, A., Abdollahian, M., Kolahchi, R. (2014). “Nonlinear Vibration of Embedded Smart Composite Microtube Conveying Fluid Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory.” Polym. Compos. , PP. 111.##[12]. Tan, P. and Tong, L. (2001). “Microelectromechanics models for piezoelectricfiber reinforced composite materials.” Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 61, PP. 759–769.##[13]. Tan, P. and Tong, L. (2001). “Micromechanics models for nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric fiber reinforced composite materials.” Int. J. Solids. Struct., vol. 38, PP. 8999–9032.##[14]. Mase, G.T. and Mase, G.E. (1999). Continuum Mechanics for Engineers. Second ed., CRC Press, Michigan.##[15]. Ghorbanpour Arani, A., Kolahchi, R. and Khoddami Maraghi, Z. (2013). “Nonlinear vibration and instability of embedded doublewalled boron nitride nanotubes based on nonlocal cylindrical shell theory.” APPl. Math. Modell., vol. 37 , PP. 7685–7707.##[16]. Zhou, X. and Wang, L. (2012). “vibration and stability of microscale cylindrical shells conveying fluid based on modified couple stress theory.” Micro. Nano. Lett., vol. 7, PP. 679–684.##[17]. Fox, W.P., Pritchard, J. and McDonald, A.T. (2005). Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. sixth ed., John Wiley & Sons Pub, New York.##[18]. Karniadakis, G., Beskok, A. and Aluru, N. (2005). Microflows Nanoflows: Fundamental simulation. Springer Pub, New York.##[19]. Mirramezani, M. and Mirdamadi, H.R. (2012). “The effects of Knudsendependent flow velocity on vibrations of a nanopipe conveying fluid.” Arch. APPl. Mech., vol. 82, PP. 879890.##[20]. Kaviani, F. and Mirdamadi, H.R. (2012). “Influence of Knudsen number on fluid viscosity for analysis of divergence in fluid conveying nanotubes.” Comput. Mater. Sci., vol. 61, PP. 270–277.##[21]. Ghorbanpour Arani, A. and Amir, S. (2013). “Electrothermal vibration of viscoelastically coupled BNNT systems conveying fluid embedded on elastic foundation via strain gradient theory.” Physica B., vol. 419, PP.1–6.##[22]. Shu, C. (2000). Differential Quadrature and its APPlication in Engineering. Springer Pub, London.##[23]. Liu, Z.H., Pan, C.T., Lin, L.W. and Lai, H.W. (2013). “Piezoelectric properties of PVDF/MWCNT nanofiber using nearfield electrospinning.” Sens. Actuators, vol. 193, PP. 13– 24.##]
1

Study and simulation of the effective factors on soil compaction by tractors wheels using the finite element method
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55093.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55093
1
Soil is a nonrenewable source that needs considerable management to prevent physical deteriorationby erosion and compaction. Compacted soil causes low fertility and yield. The purpose of this study isto investigate the effect of viscoelastic properties of soil and to determine important factors oncompaction. Furthermore, stress distribution, prediction of soil compaction and simulation of its effectunder tractor wheels using ANSYS software were also studied. Predicted results using ANSYSsoftware are compared with laboratory and field results. Simulations were carried out by changing andmeasuring effective factors on soil compaction. These factors consist of wheel parameters whichinclude: number of wheel passes, speed and load; and the soil parameters such as soil bulk density andYoung’s modulus. The predicted results indicated that maximum soil compaction in the first trafficwith 512 mm was induced by viscoelastic properties of soil and the minimum soil compaction in thesixth traffic was 8 mm caused by soil elasticity properties. Variation in soil bulk density wasnegligible. Also at each wheel pass, e maximum stress was in the soil surface and this decreased withincrease in depth. The maximum vertical stress on the soil in the sixth traffic was 120.477 kPa at 2.52km/h and the minimum was 117.46 kPa at 5 km/h.
0

107
115


Kazem
Jafari Naeimi
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar
University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran
jafarinaeimi@uk.ac.ir


Hossein
Baradaran
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran
bara@uk.ac.ir


Razie
Ahmadi
M.S. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of
Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran
razieh_am2004@yahoo.com


Malihe
Shekari
M.S. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of
Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran
m. shekari@yahoo.com
Soil bulk density
Soil compaction
soil Young’s modulus
simulation
Viscoelastic properties
[[1].Arvidsson, J., Keller, T. (2007). Soil stress as affected by wheel load and tyre inflation pressure. Soil Till. Res. 96, 284 291.##[2].Besson, A., Seger, M., Giot, G. and Cousin, I. (2013). Identifying the characteristic scales of soil structural recovery after compaction from three in field methods of monitoring. Geo derma 204205: 130139.##[3].Botta, G.F., Tolon Becerra, A., Tourn, M., Lastra Bravo, X. and Rivero, D. (2012). Agricultural traffic: motion resistance and soil compaction in relation to tractor design and different soil conditions. Soil and Tillage Research. 120: 9298.##[4].Burger, J.A., Kreh, R.E., Minaei, S., Perumpral, J.V. and Torbert, J.L. (1984). Tires and Tracks: How they compare in the forest. Agricultural Engineering, 65(2): 1418.##[5].Chen, Y., Tessier, s. and Rauffignat, J. (1998). Soil bulk density estimation for tillage systems and soil texture. Transactions of the ASAE, 41 (4): 16011610.##[6].Gill, W.R. (1971). Economic assessment of soil compaction. In: Compaction of Agricultural soils. ASAE monograph: 431458 St. Joseph, MI.##[7].Hamza, M.A., Anderson, W.K. (2005). Soil compaction in cropping system. A review of the nature, causes and possible solution. Soil & Tillage Research 82 (2): 121145.##[8].Hassan, A. (1978). Effects of mechanization on soils and forest regeneration in coastal plain organic soil. Transactions of the ASAE, 21 (6): 11071111.##[9].Hatchell, G.E., Ralston, C.W. and Foil, R.R. (1970). Soil disturbances in logging. Journal of Forestry, 68: 772775.##[10]. Horn, R. (2009). Introduction to the special issue about soil management for sustainability. Soil Till. Res. 102: 165167.##[11]. Jafari Naeimi, K., (2007). Investigate the interaction between the tractor wheels and agricultural soil and viscoelastic soil properties. PhD thesis, Moscow state university of agricultural machinery engineering, Garyachkyn.##[12]. Kibblewhite, M.G., Ritz, K. and Swift, M.J. (2008). Soil health in agricultural systems. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 363: 685701.##[13]. Lancas, K.P., Santos Filho, A.C. and Upadhyaya, S.K. (1998). Soil compaction evaluation as a function of soil conditions, tire characteristics and wheel slip. International Conference of Agricultural Engineering. Oslo, Norway.##[14]. Lull, H.W. (1959). Soil compaction on forest and range lands. Academic press, New York.##[15]. Lamande, M. and Schjonning, P. (2010). Transmission of vertical stress in a real soil profile. Part II: Effect of type size, inflation pressure and wheel load, is ted. Denmark: Elsevier, 144.##[16]. Minaei, S. (1984). Multi pass effects of wheel and track type vehicles on soil compaction. MS. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.##[17]. Raghavan, G.S.V. and Mckeys, E. (1977). Study of traction and compaction problems on eastern Canadian agricultural soils. MS. Thesis, Dept. of Agricultural Eng., MacDonald campus. McGill Univ. Ste. Anne de Bellevue.##[18]. Raper, R.L. (2005). Agricultural traffic impacts on soil. J. Terra mech. 42: 259280.##[19]. Shahgholi, Gh. and Abuali, M. (2015). Measuring soil compaction and soil behavior under the tractor tire using strain transducer. Journal of Terramechines. 59: 1925.##[20]. Shahidi, K. and Ahmadi Moghadam, P., (2005). The relation between machine and soil. Jahad Daneshgahi (Azarbayjan Gharbi) publishing.##[21]. Soane, B. D. (1990). The role of organic matter in soil compatibility: A review of some practical aspects. Soil & Tillage res. 16: 179201.##[22]. Steinbrenner, E.C. (1955). The effect of repeated tractor trips on the physical properties of two forest soils in southwestern Washington. Northwest science, 29: 155159.##[23]. Tanner, D.W. and Dexter, A.R. (1974). Time dependence of compressibility for remolded and undisturbed soils. Journal of Soil Science, 25: 151164.##]
1

Numerical free vibration analysis of higherorder shear deformable beams resting on twoparameter elastic foundation
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55094.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55094
1
Free vibration analysis of higherorder shear deformation beam resting on one and twoparameter elasticfoundation is studied using differential transform method (DTM) as a part of a calculation procedure. First,the governing differential equations of beam are derived in a general form considering the shearfreeboundary conditions (zero shear stress conditions at the top and bottom of a beam). Using DTM the derivedequations governing beams, followed by higherorder shear deformation model, Timoshenko model andBernoulliEuler model are transformed to algebraic forms and a set of recurrence formulae is then derived.Upon imposing the boundary conditions of the beam at hand, a set of algebraic equations are obtained andexpressed in matrix form. Finally, the transverse natural frequencies of the beam are calculated through aniterative procedure. Several numerical examples have been carried out to demonstrate the competency ofthe present method and the results obtained by DTM are in good agreement with those in the literature.Afterward, the free vibration of beams followed up by different models (i.e. BernoulliEuler, Timoshenkoand different higherorder models) are taken into consideration.
0

117
131


Mohammad
Zakeri
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
mohammad_zakeri@ut.ac.ir


Reza
Attarnejad
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
attarnjd@ut.ac.ir
differential transform method (DTM)
elastic foundation
Free Vibration
higherorder beam theory (HOBT)
[[1].Soldatos, K.P., Selvadurai, A.P.S. (1985). Flexure of beams resting on hyperbolic elastic foundations, Solids Struct. 21(4): 373388.##[2].Eisenberger, M., Reich, Y. (1983). Static vibration and stability analysis of nonuniform beams, Comput. Struct. 31(4), 563571.##[3].Zhaohua, F., Cook, R.D., (?). Beam elements on twoparameter elastic foundations, J. Eng. Mech. 109(6), 1390–1402.##[4].Lee, S.Y., KE, H.Y. (1990). Free vibrations of nonuniform beams resting on nonuniform elastic foundation with general elastic end restraints, Comput. Struct. 34( 3): 421429.##[5].Attarnejad, R., Shahba, A., Eslaminia, M. (2011). Dynamic basic displacement functions for free vibration analysis of tapered beams, J. Vib. Control 17(14): 22222238.##[6].Timoshenko, S.P. (1922). On the transverse vibration of bars of uniform crosssection, Philos Mag 43(253): 125131.##[7].Cowper, G.R. (1996). The Shear Coefficient in Timoshenko’s Beam Theory, J. Appl. Mech. 33(2): 335340.##[8].Heiliger, P.R., Reddy, J.N. (1988). A Higher Order Beam Finite Element for Bending and Vibrations Problems, J. Sound Vib. 126(2): 309326.##[9].Morfidis, K. (2010). Vibration of Timoshenko beams on threeparameter elastic foundation. Comput. Struct. 88(56): 294–308.##[10]. Yihua, M., Li, O., Hongzhi, Z. (2009). Vibration Analysis of Timoshenko Beams on a Nonlinear Elastic Foundatin, Tsinghua Sci. Technol. 14(3): 322–326.##[11]. Lee, H.P. (1998). Dynamic Response of a Timoshenko Beam on a Winkler Foundation Subjected to a Moving Mass, Appl. Acoustics 55(3): 203215.##[12]. Yokoyam, T. (1988). Parametric instability of Timoshenko beams Resting on an elastic foundation, Comput. Struct. 28(2): 207–216.##[13]. Ruta, P. (2006). The application of Chebyshev polynomials to the solution of the nonprismatic Timoshenko beam vibration problem, J. Sound Vib. 296(12): 243–263.##[14]. Attarnejad, R., Shahba, A., Jandaghi Semnani, S. (2010). Application of differential transform in free vibration analysis of Timoshenko beams resting on twoparameter elastic foundation, AJSE 35(2B): 121128.##[15]. Esmailzadeh, E., Ghorashi, M. (1997). Vibration analysis of a Timoshenko beam subjected to a travelling mass, J. Sound Vib. 199(4): 615628.##[16]. Lin, S.C., Hsiao, K.M. (2001). Vibration analysis of a rotating Timoshenko beam, J. Sound Vib. 240(2): 303–322.##[17]. Yokoyama, T. (1996). Vibration analysis of Timoshenko beamcolumns on twoparameter elastic foundations. Comput. Struct. 61(6): 995–1007.##[18]. Levinson, M. (1981). A new rectangular beam theory, J. Sound Vib. 74(1): 8187.##[19]. Bickford, W.B. (1982). A consistent higher order beam theory, Dev. Theor. Appl. Mech., 11: 137150.##[20]. Wang, X.D., Shi, G. (2012). Boundary Layer Solutions Induced by Displacement Boundary Conditions of Shear Deformable Beams and Accuracy Study of Several HigherOrder Beam Theories, J. Eng. Mech. 138(11): 13881399.##[21]. Reddy, J.N. (1984). A simple higher order theory for laminated composite plates, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 51(4): 745752.##[22]. Wang, M.Z., Wang, W. (2003). A refined theory of beams, J. Eng. Mech. Suppl. 324327.##[23]. Gao, Y., Wang, M. (2006). The refined theory of rectangular deep beams based on general solutions of elasticity, Sci in China Ser G 36(3): 286297.##[24]. Bhimaraddi, A., Chandrashekhara, K. (1993). Observations on higherorder beam theory, J. Aerospace Eng. 6(4): 408–413.##[25]. Chakrabarti, A., Sheikh, A.H., Griffith, M., Oehlers, D.J. (2013). Dynamic Response of Composite Beams with Partial Shear Interaction Using a HigherOrder Beam Theory, J. Struct. Eng. 139(1): 47–56.##[26]. Lam, K.Y., Wang, C.M., He, X.Q. (2000). Canonical exact solutions for Levyplates on a twoparameter foundation using Green’s functions, J. Eng. Struct. 22(4): 364–378.##[27]. Eisenberger, M. (2003). Dynamic stiffness vibration analysis using a highorder beam model, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng. 57(11): 1603–1614.##[28]. Heyliger, P.R., Reddy, J.N. (1988). A higher order beam finite element for bending And vibration problems, J. Sound Vib. 126(2): 309–326.##[29]. Matsunaga, H. (1999). Vibration and buckling of deep beamcolumns on twoparameter elastic foundations, J. Sound Vib. 228(2): 359–376.##[30]. Winkler, E. (1867). Die Lehre Von Der Elastizitat Und Festigkeit, Prague : Dominicus.##[31]. Pasternak, P.L. (1954). On a New Method of Analysis of an Elastic Foundation by Means of TwoConstants, USSR: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatelstvo Literaturi po Stroitelstvu I Arkhitekture [in Russian], Moscow.##[32]. Filonenko–Borodich (1940). Some Approximate Theories of Elastic Foundation, Uchenyie Zapiski Moskovskogo ##Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta Mekhanica [in Russian], 46: 3–18,##[33]. Hetenyi, M. (1946). Beams on Elastic Foundations, Ann. Arbor. Mich. USA: The University of Michigan Press.##[34]. Hetenyi, M. (1950). A general solution for the bending of beams on an elastic foundation of arbitrary, J Appl. Phys. 21(1): 5558.##[35]. Vlasov, V.Z., Leontev, U.N. (?). Beams, Plates and Shells on Elastic Foundations. NASA XT F357 TT 6550135.##[36]. Catal, S. (2008). Solution of Free Vibration Equations of Beams on Elastic Soil by Using Differential Transform Method, Appl. Math. Model. 32(9): 1744–1757.##[37]. Ho, S.H., Chen, C.K. (1998). Analysis of General Elastically End Restrained NonUniform Beams Using Differential Transform, Appl. Math. Model. 22(45): 219–234.##[38]. Sayyad, A.S. (2011). Comparison of various refined beam theories for the bending and free vibration analysis of thick beams. Appl. Comput. Mech. 5(2): 217230.##[39]. Zhao, J.K. (1988). Differential transformation and its application for electrical circuits, Huazhong.##[40]. Chen, C.K., Ho, S.H. (1996). Application of differential transformation eigenvalue problems, Appl. Math. Comput. 79(23): 171179.##[41]. Kaya, M.O. (2006). Free vibration analysis of a rotating timoshenko beam by differential transform method, Aircr Eng Aerosp Tec 78(3): 194203.##[42]. Ozgumus, O.O., Kaya, M.O. (2006). Flapwise bending vibration analysis of a rotating tapered cantilever bernoulli–euler beam by differential transform method, J. Sound Vib. 289(12): 413420.##[43]. Yalcin, S., Arikoglu, A., Ozkol, I. (2009). Free vibration analysis of circular plates by differential transformation method, Appl. Mathematics and Computation 212(2): 377386.##[44]. Attarnejad, R., Shahba, A. (2008). Application of differential transform method in free vibration analysis of rotating nonprismatic beams, World Appl. Sci. J. 5(4): 441448.##[45]. Shahba, A., Rajasekaran, S. (2011). Free vibration and stability of tapered Euler–Bernoulli beams made of axially functionally graded materials, Appl. Math. Model. 36(7): 3094–3111.##[46]. Rajasekaran, S. (2013). Buckling and vibration of axially functionally graded nonuniform beams using differential transformation based dynamic stiffness approach, Meccanica 48(5): 1053–1070.##[47]. Semnani, S.J., Attarnejad, R., Firouzjaei, R.K. (2013). Free Vibration Analysis of Variable Thickness Thin Plates by Two – dimensional Differential Transform Method, Acta Mechanica 224(8): 16431658.##[48]. Reddy, J.N. (2002). Energy principles and variational methods in applied mechanic. Wiley.##[49]. De Rosa, M.A. (1995). Free vibration of Timoshenko beams on twoparameter elastic foundation. Comput. Struct. 57(1): 151–156. University Press, Wuhan, China.##[50]. Balkaya, M., Kaya, M.O., Sa˘glamer, A. (2009). Analysis of the vibration of an elastic beam supported on elastic soil using the differential transform method, Arch. Appl. Mech. 79(2): 135–146.##[51]. Touratier, M. (1991). An efficient standard plate theory, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 29(8): 901916.##[52]. Soldatos, K.P. (1992). 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1

Dynamic responses of poroelastic beams with attached massspring systems and timedependent, nonideal supports subjected to moving loads: An analytical approach
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55095.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55095
1
The present study is the first to analyze the dynamic response of a poroelastic beam subjected to a moving force. Moreover, the influences of attached massspring systems and nonideal supports (with local movements in the supporting points or base due to the presence of factors such as gaps, unbalanced masses, and friction or seismic excitations) on the responses were investigated. Nonideal support experiences timedependent deflection and moment. To evaluate the effects of both the theory type and the material properties, three models were investigated for the beam with massspring attachment and nonideal supports: i) elastic EulerBernoullitype beam, ii) elastic Timoshenkotype beam, and iii) poroelastic beam. The governingcoupled PDE equations of the forced vibration of the saturated poroelastic beam were analytically solved via Laplace and finite Fourier transforms. The effects of various parameters on the responses were investigated comprehensively and illustrated graphically. The poroelastic nature of the material properties was found to attenuate the vibration amplitude, and it is assumed that the attached mass can considerably affect the vibration pattern.
0

133
151


S.
Fallahzadeh R.
M.Sc., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
sina.fallahzadeh@gmail.com


M.
Shariyat
Professor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
m_shariyat@yahoo.com
Poroelastic beam
Dynamic response
Finite Fourier transform
Laplace transform
Nonideal support
Attached massspring system
[[1].Wong J.Y., 2001, Theory of ground vehicles, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, Third Edition.##[2].Jazar R.N., 2008, Vehicle Dynamics: Theory and Applications, Springer.##[3]. Ellis B.R., Ji T., 1997, Human–structure interaction in vertical vibrations, In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers—Structures and Buildings 122(1): 1–9.##[4].Snowdon J.C., 1966,Vibration of cantilever beams to which dynamic absorbers are attached, Journal of Acoustic Society of America 39: 878.##[5].Lee H.P.,1996, Dynamic response of a beam with a moving mass, Journal of Sound and Vibration 191: 289294.##[6].Mofid M., Tehranchi A., Ostadhossein A., 2010, On the viscoelastic beam subjected to moving mass, Advance in Engineering Software 41(2): 240247.##[7].Bulut H., Kelesoglu O., 2010, Comparing numerical methods for response of beams with moving mass, Advances in Engineering Software 41(78): 976980.##[8].Garinei A., 2006, Vibrations of simple beamlike modelled bridge under harmonic moving loads, International Journal of Engineering Science 44(1112):778787.##[9].Şimşek M., Kocatürk T., 2009, Free and forced vibration of a functionally graded beam subjected to a concentrated moving harmonic load, Composite Structures 90(4): 465473.##[10]. Raftoyiannis I.G., Avraam T.P., Michaltsos G.T., 2014, Analytical models of floating bridges under moving loads, Engineering Structures 68(1): 144154.##[11]. Şimşek M., 2010, Nonlinear vibration analysis of a functionally graded Timoshenko beam under action of a moving harmonic load, Composite Structures 92(10): 25322546.##[12]. Wang Y.M., Chen C.H., 2012, The transient dynamics of a moving mass traveling on an eccentric path along a finite simple supported inextensible beam, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 55(1): 118128.##[13]. Turhan O., 2000, On the fundamental frequency of beams carrying a point mass: Rayleigh approximation versus exact solutions, Journal of Sound and Vibration 230(2): 449459.##[14]. Chiba M., Sugimoto T.,2003, Vibration characteristics of a cantilever plate with attached spring–mass system, Journal of Sound and Vibration 260(2):237–263.##[15]. Zhang D., CowinS.C., Oscillatory bending of a poroelastic beam, Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids42(10): 1575–1599.##[16]. Wang Z.H., Prevost J.H., Coussy O., 2009, Bending of fluidsaturated poroelastic beams with compressible constitutes, International Journalfor Numericaland AnalyticalMethods in Geomechanics 33(4): 425–447.##[17]. Li L.P., Schulgasser K., Cederbaum G., 1998, Large deflection analysis of poroelastic beams, International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics 33(1): 114.##[18]. Biot M.A., 1941, General theory of threedimensional consolidation, Journal of Applied Physics 12: 155–164.##[19]. Cederbaum G., Li L., Schulgasser K., 2000, Poroelastic structures, Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford, UK.##[20]. de Boer R., 2003, Reflections on the development of the theory of porous media, AppliedMechanics Reviews 56(6): 27–42.##[21]. Schrefler B.A., 2002, Mechanics and thermodynamics of saturated/unsaturated porous materials and quantitative solution, Applied Mechanics Reviews 55(4): 351–388.##[22]. Yang X., Li L., 2006, Mathematical model for dynamics of incompressible saturated poroelastic beam and rod (in Chinese), Acta Mech Solida Sinica 27: 159–166.##[23]. Yang X., Wen Q., 2010, Dynamic and quasistatic bending of saturated poroelastic Timoshenko cantilever beam, Applied Mathematics and MechanicsEnglish Edition 31(8): 995–1008.##[24]. Yi Y., Li L., Xiao Y., 2009, Quasistatic and dynamical bending of a cantilever poroelastic beam, Journal of Shanghai University (English Ed) 13(3): 189–196.##[25]. Niskos D., Theodorakopoulos D., 1994, Flexural vibrations of poroelastic plate, Acta Mechanica 103: 191–203.##[26]. Busse A., Schanz M., Antes B., 2003, A poroelastic Mindlinplate, Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics3(1):260–261.##[27]. Yang S.S.G.Y.X., 2010, Mathematical model for dynamic of incompressible saturated poroelastic Timoshenko beam, Chinese Journal of Solid Mechanics 20104.##[28]. Pakdemirli M., Boyaci H., 2002, Effect of nonideal boundary conditions on the vibrations of continuous systems, Journal of Sound and Vibration 249(4): 815–823.##[29]. Pakdemirli M., Boyaci H., 2003, Nonlinear vibrations of a simple–simple beam with a nonideal support in between, Journal of Sound and Vibration 268(2): 331–341.##[30]. Aydogdu M., Ece M.C., 2006, Buckling and vibration of nonideal simply supported rectangular isotropic plates, Mechanics Research Communication 33(4):532–540.##[31]. Malekzadeh K., Khalili S.M.R., Abbaspour P., 2010, Vibration of nonideal simply supported laminated plate on an elastic foundation subjected to inplane stresses, Composite Structures 92(6): 1478–1484.##[32]. Boyacı H., 2007, Beam vibrations with nonideal boundary conditions, Springer Proceedings in Physics 111: 97102.##[33]. Eigoli A.K., Ahmadian M.T., 2011, Nonlinear vibration of beams under nonideal boundary conditions, Acta Mechanica 218(34): 259267.##[34]. Zarfam R., Khaloo A.R., Nikkhoo A., 2013, On the response spectrum of Euler–Bernoulli beams with a moving mass and horizontal support excitation, Mechanics Research Communication 47 :7783.##[35]. Rao S., 2010, Mechanical vibrations, Prentice Hall, Fifth Edition.##[36]. Sneddon I.N., 1972, The use of integral transforms, McGrawHill.##[37]. Fryba L., 1999, Vibration of solids and structures under moving loads, Groningen. Thomas Telford Ltd., London, Third Edition.##]
1

Comparative study between dynamic transient and degreehours methods to estimate heating and cooling loads of building’s wall
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55096.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55096
1
In this paper, dynamic transient method and conventional degreehours method (static) have been compared to estimate heating and cooling loads of building’s wall. All main wall surfaces of various orientations, i.e.South, West, East, North, and horizontal are considered in the climate of Tehran, Iran. In this study, a conventional wall structure, which is comprisedconcrete as main wall material, and EPS (expanded polystyrene), as insulation material, areused. The actual outdoor air temperature (used in dynamic method) was obtained by mean hourly measurementsrecorded in meteorological data over the period of 2006–12. Annual heating and cooling degreehoursare calculated based on this recent weather data, and results are compared with the values reported in the national building regulations (topic 14). One dimensional transient heat transfer problem for multilayer walls has been solved to obtain temperature distribution within the wall. Annual heating and cooling load resulting from dynamic method have been compared with degreehoursmethod; the results showed that there is a significant difference between these two estimations.
0

153
165


Hadi
Ramin
Center of Excellence in Design and Optimization of Energy Systems, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
hadi.ramin@ut.ac.ir


Pedram
Hanafizadeh
Center of Excellence in Design and Optimization of Energy Systems, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
hanafizadeh@ut.ac.ir


Mohammad Ali
AkhavanBehabadi
Center of Excellence in Design and Optimization of Energy Systems, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
akhavan@ut.ac.ir
dynamic transient method
heating and cooling degreehours (HDH and CDH)
heating and cooling load
national building regulations
[[1].J. Yu, L. Tian, C. Yang, X. Xu and J. Wang, "Optimum insulation thickness of residential roof with respect to solarair degreehours in hot summer and cold winter zone of china," ENERG BUILDINGS , vol. 43, pp. 23042313, 2011.##[2].O. Kaynakli, "A study on residential heating energy requirement and optimum insulation thickness," RENEW ENERG, vol. 33, p. 1164–1172, 2008.##[3]."Ministry of Energy," 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.moe.gov.ir/.##[4].A. Bolatturk, "Optimum insulation thicknesses for building walls with respect to cooling and heating degreehours in the warmest zone of Turkey," Building and environment, vol. 43, pp. 10551064, 2008.##[5].O. Kaynakli, "A review of the economical and optimum thermal insulation thickness for building applications," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, pp. 415425, 2012.##[6].M. Ruth and A. Lin, "Regional energy demand and adaptations toclimate change: methodology and application to the state of Maryland," USA. Energy Policy, vol. 34, no. 17, pp. 28202833, 2006.##[7].R. Cox, M. Drews, C. Rode and S. Nielsen, "Simple future weather files for estimating heating and cooling demand," Building and Environment, vol. 83, pp. 104114, 2015.##[8].Minisrty of Roads & urban development, national building regulations part 14, tehran, 2010.##[9].American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers, Inc., 2009 ASHRAE handbook, fundamental, AHSRAE, 2009.##[10]. M. Ozel, "Determination of optimum insulation thickness based on cooling transmission load for building walls in a hot climate," Energy Convers Manage, vol. 66, pp. 106114, 2013.##[11]. S. A. AlSanea, M. Zedan and S. A. AlAjlan, "Effect of electricity tariff on the optimum insulationthickness in building walls as determined by a dynamic heattransfer model," APPL ENERG, vol. 82, pp. 313330, 2005.##[12]. H. Asan, "Investigation of wall’s optimum insulation position from maximum time lag and minimum decrement factor point of view," ENERG BUILDINGS, vol. 32, pp. 197203, 2000.##[13]. J. Duffie and . W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 2nd ed ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991.##[14]. H. Hottel, "A simple model for estimating the transmittance of direct solar radiation through clear atmospheres," Sol Energy, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 129134, 1976.##[15]. M. Ozel and K. Pihtili, "Optimum location and distribution of insulation layers on building walls with various orientations," BUILD ENVIRON, vol. 42, no. 8, p. 3051–3059, 2007.##[16]. R. L. Burden and J. D. Faires, Numerical Analysis, Boston: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2011.##[17]. "I. R. Iran's Meterological Organization," 2013. [Online]. Available: www.weather.ir.##]
1

Numerical Study of Droplet Generation Process in a Microfluidic Flow Focusing
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55101.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55101
1
Microfluidic flow focusing devices have been utilized for droplet generation on account of its superior control over droplet size. Droplet based microfluidics addressed many scientific issues by providing a novel technological platform for applications such as biology, pharmaceutical industry, biomedical studies and drug delivery. This study numerically investigated the droplet generation process of an aqueous flow in oleic acid oil in a microfluidic flow focusing device. A conservative level set method is conducted to numerically model the droplet generation process. The post processing of the simulation results are done using Canny edge detection image processing method, which is a novel approach. Moreover, the results of the numerical simulation were compared to the experimental data provided by Ten et al. on the same device. This method showed a maximum average deviation from the experimental results of 14.6% and a minimum of 6.96%. Also, by means of altering water and oil flows, the influence of parameters affecting droplet size, which lead to a better understanding of droplet generation phenomenon, was investigated in this study. Therefore, it can be concluded that the flow ratio and capillary number are the two primary parameters that affect droplet size, while capillary number showed more dominance in comparison to flow ratio.
0

167
175


Ali
Lashkaripour
Department of Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
a.lashkaripour@ut.ac.ir


Ali
Abouei Mehrizi
Department of Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
abouei@ut.ac.ir


Mohamadreza
Rasouli
Department of Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
rasouli1919@yahoo.com


Masoud
Goharimanesh
Mechanical Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
ma.goharimanesh@stu.um.ac.ir
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
droplet generation
flow focusing
level set
microfluidic
[[1].Zhang, C., et al. (2006). PCR microfluidic devices for DNA amplification. Biotechnology advances, 24(3): p. 243284.##[2].Zhang, Y., Ozdemir, P. (2009). Microfluidic DNA amplification—a review. Analytica chimica acta, 638(2): p. 115125.##[3].Chang, Y.H., et al. (2006). Integrated polymerase chain reaction chips utilizing digital microfluidics. Biomedical microdevices, 8(3): p. 215225.##[4].Granado, K.V.R., et al. (2013). Numerical simulation of droplet formation in a microchannel device. The International Journal of Multiphysics, 7(4): p. 271286.##[5].Hatch, A.C., et al. (2011). 1Million droplet array with widefield fluorescence imaging for digital PCR. Lab Chip, 11(22): p. 38383845.##[6].Nie, Z., et al. (2008). Emulsification in a microfluidic flowfocusing device: effect of the viscosities of the liquids. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 5(5): p. 585594.##[7].Lee, W., L.M. Walker, Anna, S.L. (2009). Role of geometry and fluid properties in droplet and thread formation processes in planar flow focusing. Physics of Fluids (1994present), 21(3): p. 032103.##[8].Christopher, G., Anna, S. (2007). Microfluidic methods for generating continuous droplet streams. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 40(19): p. R319.##[9].Griffiths, A.D., Tawfik, D.S. (2006). Miniaturising the laboratory in emulsion droplets. Trends in biotechnology, 24(9): p. 395402.##[10]. Anna, S.L., Bontoux, N., Stone, H.A. (2003). Formation of dispersions using “flow focusing” in microchannels. Applied physics letters, 82(3): p. 364366.##[11]. Garstecki, P., Stone, H.A. Whitesides, G.M. (2005). Mechanism for flowrate controlled breakup in confined geometries: A route to monodisperse emulsions. Physical Review Letters, 94(16): p. 164501.##[12]. Li, Y., Jain, M., Nandakumar, K. (2012). Numerical study of droplet formation inside a microfluidic flowfocusing device. in COMSOL Conference Proceeding.##[13]. Conneely, M., et al. Computationally Assisted Design and Experimental Validation of a Novel'FlowFocussed'Microfluidics Chip for Generating Monodisperse Microbubbles.##[14]. Tan, Y.C., Cristini, V. Lee, A.P. (2006). Monodispersed microfluidic droplet generation by shear focusing microfluidic device. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 114(1): p. 350356.##[15]. Liu, J., Nguyen, N.T. (2010). Numerical simulation of dropletbased microfluidics.##[16]. Olsson, E., Kreiss, G. (2005). A conservative level set method for two phase flow. Journal of computational physics, 210(1): p. 225246.##[17]. Basu, M. (2002). Gaussianbased edgedetection methodsa survey. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C, 32(3): p. 252260.##[18]. Canny, J. (1986). A computational approach to edge detection. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on, (6): p. 679698.##]
1

A mesh generation procedure to simulate bimaterials
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55102.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55102
1
It is difficult to develop an algorithm which is able to generate the appropriate mesh around the interfaces in bimaterials. In this study, a corresponding algorithm is proposed for this class of unified structures made from different materials with arbitrary shapes. The nonuniform mesh is generated adaptively based on advancing front technique available in Abaqus software. Implementing several preliminary analyses, the output of each step prepared data source for the next step of mesh generation. After examining several criteria, the mean elemental stress derivative is selected as a suitable criterion to evaluate the performance of current mesh. The convergence indicates nonisometric final mesh with appropriate and optimum distribution. In general, automatic mesh generators determine the mesh density only based on the geometry of the model; however, the developed algorithm modifies mesh after sensing the stress intensity due to various reasons including loading condition and any change in material and geometry. In addition, the proposed algorithm converges to accurate result fast enough if considering the numbers of remeshing steps. An adaptive mesh generator code can be programmed based on the developed procedure to automatically generate mesh if implementing in Abaqus as a subroutine.
0

177
190


Mohammad Reza
Vaziri Sereshk
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran,
Iran
m.vaziri@ut.ac.ir


Mohammad Hassan
Esmaeili
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Iran
hassan_essmaeili@yahoo.com
adaptive meshing
bimaterials
mesh generation
stress concentration
[[1]. Abaqus, User's Manual, Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp, 2012.##[2]. Ansys, Tutorial Release 14.5, SAS IP, Inc., 2012.##[3]. C. Gonza´lez and J. LLorca, "Mechanical behavior of unidirectional fiberreinforced polymers under transverse compression: Microscopic mechanisms and modeling," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 67, p. 2795–2806, 2007.##[4]. Laurent Van Miegroet, Pierre Duysinx, Stress concentration minimization of 2D filets using XFEM and level set description, Struct Multidisc Optim (2007) 33:425–438.##[5]. C. Lee and R. Hobbs, "Automatic adaptive ®nite element mesh generation over arbitrary twodimensional domain using advancing front technique," Computers and Structures, no. 71, pp. 934, 1999.##[6]. R. Montenegro, J. Cascón, J. Escobar, E. Rodríguez and G. Montero, "An automatic strategy for adaptive tetrahedral mesh generation," Applied Numerical Mathematics, no. 59, p. 2203–2217, 2009.##[7]. S. Phongthanapanich, "Delaunay Adaptive Remeshing Technique for Finite Element/Finite Volume Methods," Thailand, 2010.##[8]. S. Lo, "Dynamic grid for mesh generation by the advancing front method," Computers and Structures, no. 123, p. 15–27, 2013.##[9]. G. H. Paulino, I. F. M. Menezes, J. B. Cavalcante Neto, L. F. Martha, A methodology for adaptive finite element analysis: Towards an integrated computational environment, Computational Mechanics 23 (1999) 361388.##[10]. K.S.R.K. Murthy and M. Mukhopadhyay, Adaptive finite element analysis of mixedmode fracture problems containing multiple cracktips with an automatic mesh generator, International Journal of Fracture 108: 251–274, 2001.##[11]. Guoqun Zhao, Hongmei Zhang, Lianjun Cheng, Geometryadaptive generation algorithm and boundary match method for initial hexahedral element mesh, Engineering with Computers (2008) 24:321–339##[12]. Xinghua Liang , Yongjie Zhang, An octreebased dual contouring method for triangular and tetrahedral mesh generation with guaranteed angle range, Engineering with Computers (2014) 30:211–222##[13]. Lu Sun, Guoqun Zhao, Adaptive hexahedral mesh generation and quality optimization for solid models with thin features using a gridbased method, Engineering with Computers, DOI 10.1007/s0036601503999, Published online, 14 Feb 2015.##[14]. Alshoaibi, Abdulnaser M., Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal, Finite element simulation of stress intensity factors in elasticplastic crack growth, Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A, 2006 7(8):13361342.##[15]. E. RuizGirones, X. Roca, J. Sarrate, Sizepreserving size functions and smoothing procedures for adaptive quadrilateral mesh generation, Engineering with Computers (2015) 31:483–498##[16]. A. Rajagopal, S. M. Sivakumar, A combined rh adaptive strategy based on material forces and error assessment for plane problems and bimaterial interfaces, Comput Mech (2007) 41:49–72.##[17]. James P. Carson, Andrew P. Kuprat, Xiangmin Jiao, Volodymyr Dyedov, Facundo del Pin, Julius M. Guccione, Mark B. Ratcliffe, Daniel R. Einstein, Adaptive generation of multimaterial grids from imaging data for biomedical Lagrangian fluid–structure simulations, Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2010) 9:187–201.##[18]. C. Li, C. Song, H. Man, E.T. Ooi, W. Gao, " HYPERLINK "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020768314000626" 2D dynamic analysis of cracks and interface cracks in piezoelectric composites using the SBFEM ," International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 51, no. 11–12, P. 20962108, 2014.##[19]. M. H. Sadd, Elasticity: Theory, Applications, and Numerics, Burlington: Elsevier Inc, 2005.##[20]. J. D. Hoffman, Numerical methods for engineers and scientists, 2nd edition, New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2001.##]
1

Transient thermoviscoelastic response of a functionally graded nonaxisymmetric cylinder
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55180.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55180
1
In this study, the analysis of transient thermoelastic response of a functionally graded (FG) nonaxisymmetric viscoelastic cylinder is presented. The material properties are assumed to be time dependent and radially and circumferentially nonhomogeneous. The finite element (FE) formulations of the thermoelastic problem are obtained using the virtual work method and all the coupling terms are considered. According to material dependencies and nonlinearity of the constitutive equation, an iterativebased FE solution is suggested in order to solve thermoelastic equations. The effects of material in homogeneities on the timedependent response of mechanical and thermal components are investigated. From the results of this study, it is concluded that, using appropriate material inhomogeneities can improve the magnitudes of stress components, especially shear stress.
0

191
204


Rahmatollah
Ghajar
Mechanical Properties Research Lab (MPRL), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi Univeristy of Technology, Iran
Iran
ghajar@kntu.ac.ir


Mahmood
Shokrieh
Composites Research Laboratory, Center of Excellence in Experimental Solid Mechanics and Dynamics, School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran
Iran
shokrieh@iustt.ac.ir


Ali
Shajari
Mechanical Properties Research Lab (MPRL), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi Univeristy of Technology, Iran
Iran
ali.r.shajari@gmail.com
Finite Element Method
Functionally Graded Material
nonaxisymmetric
transient thermoelasticity
Viscoelastic
[[1].Chen TC, Weng CI., 1989, Coupled transient thermoelastic response in an axisymmetric circular cylinder by Laplace transformfinite element method. Comput Struct 33(2): 533542.##[2].Lee ZY., 2006, Generalized coupled transient thermoelastic problem of multilayered hollow cylinder with hybrid boundary conditions. Int Commun Heat Mass 33(4): 518–528.##[3].Chitikireddy R, Datta SK, Shah AH, Bai H., 2011, Transient thermoelastic waves in an anisotropic hollow cylinder due to localized heating. Int J Solids Struct 48(21): 3063–3074.##[4].Jabbari M, Bahtui A, Eslami MR., 2009, Axisymmetric mechanical and thermal stresses in thick short length FGM cylinders. Int J Pres Ves Pip 86(5): 296–306.##[5].Ying J, Wang HM., 2010, Axisymmetric thermoelastic analysis in a finite hollow cylinder due to nonuniform thermal shock. Int J Pres Ves Pip 87(12): 714–720.##[6].Sadd M., 2005, Elasticity, theory, applications and numeric. Elsevier, Kingston Elsevier.##[7].Takeut Y, Nod N., 1980, Threedimensional transient thermal stresses in a finite circular cylinder under nonaxisymmetric temperature distribution. J Therm Stresses 3(2): 159183.##[8].Jabbari M, Sohrabpour S, Eslami MR., 2003, General Solution for Mechanical and Thermal Stresses in a Functionally Graded Hollow Cylinder due to Nonaxisymmetric SteadyState Loads. J Appl Mech 70(1): 111–118.##[9].Tokovyy YV, Ma CC., 2008, Analysis of 2D nonaxisymmetric elasticity and thermoelasticity problems for radially inhomogeneous hollow cylinders. J Eeg Math 61(24): 171184.##[10]. Tokovyy YV, Ma CC., 2009, Analytical solutions to the planar nonaxisymmetric elasticity and thermoelasticity problems for homogeneous and inhomogeneous annular domains. Int J Eng Sci 47(3): 413–437.##[11]. Li H, Liu Y., 2014, Functionally graded hollow cylinders with arbitrary varying material properties under nonaxisymmetric loads. Mech Res Commun 55: 1–9.##[12]. Zheng BJ., Gao XW., Yang K., Zeng C., A novel meshless local Petrov–Galerkin method for dynamic coupled thermoelasticity analysis under thermal and mechanical shock loading. Eng Anal Bound Elem, doi:10.1016/j.enganabound.2014.12.001, in press.##[13]. Jin ZH., 2006, Some Notes on the Linear Viscoelasticity of Functionally Graded Materials. Math Mech Solids 11(2): 216–224.##[14]. Zhang NH, Wang ML., 2007, Thermoviscoelastic deformations of functionally graded thin plates. Eur J Mech ASolid 26(5): 872–886.##[15]. Altenbach H., Eremeyev VA., 2008, Analysis of the viscoelastic behavior of plates made of functionally graded materials. J Appl Math MechUss 88(5): 332–341.##[16]. Chen SS, Xu CJ, Tong GS., 2015, A meshless local natural neighbour interpolation method to modeling of functionally graded viscoelastic materials. Eng Anal Bound Elem 52: 92–98.##[17]. Temel B, Yildirim S, Tutuncu N., Elastic and viscoelastic response of heterogeneous annular structures under Arbitrary Transient Pressure. Int J Mech Sci, doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2014.08.021, in press.##[18]. Lakes R., 2009, Viscoelastic materials, Cambridge University Press, New York.##[19]. Moreau S., Chrysochoos A., Muracciole JM., Wattrisse B., 2005, Analysis of thermoelastic effects accompanying the deformation of PMMA and PC polymers. Comptes Rendus Mécanique, 333(8): 648653.##[20]. Volodin VP., Slutsker, AI., 1994, Specific features of the thermoelastic effect in polymers. Thermochimica acta, 247(1): 121128.##[21]. Hetnarski R, Eslami MR., 2008 Thermal stresses – Advanced theory and applications, Springer, New York.##[22]. Payette GS, Reddy JN., 2010, Nonlinear quasistatic finite element formulations for viscoelastic Euler–Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams. Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng 26(12): 1736–1755.##[23]. Luche J, Rogaume T, Guillaume E., 2011, Characterization of thermal properties and analysis of combustion behavior of PMMA in a cone calorimeter. Fire Safety J 46(7): 451461.##[24]. Ashby MF., 2005 Materials selection in mechanical design, Elsevier, Cambridge.##[25]. Guedes RM., 2010, Nonlinear viscoelastic analysis of thickwalled cylindrical composite pipes. Int J Mech Sci 52(8): 1064–1073.##]
1

Dynamics modeling and stable gait planning of a quadruped robot in walking over uneven terrains
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55194.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55194
1
Quadruped robots have unique capabilities for motion over uneven natural environments. This article presents a stable gait for a quadruped robot in such motions and discusses the inversedynamics control scheme to follow the planned gait. First, an explicit dynamics model will be developed using a novel constraint elimination method for an 18DOF quadruped robot. Thereafter, an inversedynamics control will be introduced using this model. Next, a dynamically stable condition under sufficient friction assumption for the motion of the robot on uneven terrains will be obtained. Satisfaction of this condition assures that the robot does not tip over all the support polygon edges. Based on this stability condition, a constrained optimization problem is defined to compute a stable and smooth center of gravity (COG) path. The main feature of the COG path is that the height of the robot can be adjusted to follow the terrain. Then, a path generation algorithm for tip of the swing legs will be developed. This smooth path is planned so that any collision with the environment is avoided. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method will be verified.
0

205
220


Mahdi
Khorram
Center of Excellence in Robotics and Control Advanced Robotics and Automated Systems Lab, Dept of Mech Eng, K. N. Toosi Univ of Tech, Tehran, Iran.
Iran
mahdi.khorram@gmail.com


S. Ali A.
Moosavian
Center of Excellence in Robotics and Control Advanced Robotics and Automated Systems Lab, Dept of Mech Eng, K. N. Toosi Univ of Tech, Tehran, Iran.
Iran
moosavian@kntu.ac.ir
constraint elimination method
dynamics modeling
dynamic stability
inversedynamics control
quadruped robot
uneven terrains
[[1]. Raibert, M. 2008, "BigDog, the RoughTerrain Quadruped Robot," in Proceedings of the 17th##IFAC World Congress, COEX, Korea, South.##[2]. Semini, C. 2010, "HyQ  Design and Development of a Hydraulically Actuated Quadruped Robot," Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Genoa, Italy.##[3]. Hutter, M., Gehring, M., Bloesch, M., Mark, A.H., Remy, C.D. and Siegwart, R.Y. 2013, StarlETH: A compliant quadrupedal robot for fast, efficient, and versatile locomotion: Autonomous Systems Lab, ETH Zurich.##[4]. Moosavian, S.A.A., Alghooneh, M. and Takhmar, A. 2009, "Cartesian approach for gait planning and control of biped robots on irregular surfaces," International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, vol. 6, pp. 675697.##[5]. Kajita, S., Kanehiro, F., Kaneko, K., Fujiwara, K., Harada, K., Yokoi, K. and Hirukawa, H. 2003, "Biped walking pattern generation by using preview control of zeromoment point," in Robotics and Automation, 2003. Proceedings. ICRA '03. IEEE International Conference on, Vol. 2, pp. 16201626.##[6]. Sardain P. and Bessonnet, G. 2004, "Forces acting on a biped robot. Center of pressurezero moment point," Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 34, pp. 630637.##[7]. Takao, S., Yokokohji, Y. and Yoshikawa, T. 2003, "FSW (feasible solution of wrench) for multilegged robots," in Robotics and Automation, 2003. Proceedings. ICRA'03. IEEE International Conference on, pp. 38153820.##[8]. Ajallooeian, M., Gay, S., Tuleu, A., Sprowitz, A. and Ijspeert, A.J. 2013, "Modular control of limit cycle locomotion over unperceived rough terrain," in Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, pp. 33903397.##[9]. Hirukawa, H., Hattori, S., Harada, K., Kajita, S., Kaneko, Kanehiro, K.F., Fujiwara, K. and Morisawa, M. 2006, "A universal stability criterion of the foot contact of legged robotsadios ZMP," in Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006. Proceedings 2006 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 19761983.##[10]. Papadopoulos E. and Rey, D.A. 1996, "A new measure of tipover stability margin for mobile manipulators," in Robotics and Automation, 1996. Proceedings., 1996 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 31113116.##[11] . Sugihara, T., Nakamura, Y. and Inoue, H. 2002, "Realtime humanoid motion generation through ZMP manipulation based on inverted pendulum control," in Robotics and Automation, 2002. Proceedings. ICRA'02. IEEE International Conference on, pp. 14041409.##[12]. Kalakrishnan, M., Buchli, J., Pastor, P., Mistry, M. and Schaal, S. 2011, "Learning, planning, and control for quadruped locomotion over challenging terrain," The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 30, pp. 236 258.##[13]. Zheng, Y., Lin, M.C., Manocha, D., Adiwahono, A.H. and Chew, C.M. 2010, "A walking pattern generator for biped robots on uneven terrains," in Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, pp. 44834488.##[14]. Alipour K. and Moosavian, S.A.A. 2012, "Effect of terrain traction, suspension stiffness and grasp posture on the tipover stability of wheeled robots with multiple arms," Advanced Robotics, Vol. 26, pp. 817842.##[15]. Craig, J.J. 2005, Introduction to robotics : mechanics and control, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.##[16]. Featherstone, R. 2008, Rigid body dynamics algorithms, Vol. 49: Springer New York.##[17]. Moosavian S.A.A. and Papadopoulos, E. 2004, "Explicit dynamics of space freeflyers with multiple manipulators via SPACEMAPLE," Advanced Robotics, Vol. 18, pp. 223244.##[18]. Mistry, M., Buchli, J. and Schaal, S. 2010, "Inverse dynamics control of floating base systems using orthogonal decomposition," in Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 34063412.##[19]. Aghili, F. 2005, "A unified approach for inverse and direct dynamics of constrained multibody systems based on linear projection operator: applications to control and simulation," Robotics, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 21, pp. 834849.##[20]. Righetti, L., Buchli, J., Mistry, M. and Schaal, S. 2011, "Inverse dynamics control of floatingbase robots with external constraints: A unified view," in Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 10851090.##[21]. Kurazume, R., Hirose, S. and Yoneda, K. 2001, "Feedforward and feedback dynamic trot gait control for a quadruped walking vehicle," in Robotics and Automation, 2001. Proceedings 2001 ICRA. IEEE International Conference on, pp. 31723180, Vol.3.##[22]. Yoneda, K., Iiyama, H. and Hirose, H. 1996, "Intermittent trot gait of a quadruped walking machine dynamic stability control of an omnidirectional walk," in Robotics and Automation, 1996. Proceedings., 1996 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 30023007.##[23] .Song S.M. and Waldron, K.J. 1989, Machines that walk: the adaptive suspension vehicle: MIT press.##[24]. McGhee R.B. and Frank, A.A. 1968, "On the stability properties of quadruped creeping gaits," Mathematical Biosciences, vol. 3, pp. 331351.##[25]. Hutter, M. 2013, "StarlETH & Codesign and control of legged robots with compliant actuation," Diss., Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich, Nr. 21073,.##]
1

A Computational study on the effect of different design parameters on the accuracy of biopsy procedure
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55501.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55501
1
Needle insertion is a minimally invasive technique in diagnosing and treating tumors. However, to perform a surgery accurately, the tissue should have minimum amount of displacement during needle insertion so that it reaches the target tissue. Therefore, the tissue membrane has to move less to decrease rupturing under the membrane. In this study, the effect of different design parameters on displacement of the point where a puncture occurs during needle insertion is investigated. Finite element simulation is used to study the effect of mechanical properties of the tissues (hyperviscoelastic coefficients) and geometric parameters of the needle (fillet radius, needle tip angle and needle diameter) and friction coefficient. To validate the simulations, the results were compared with previously published results in the literature, i.e. the hyperviscoelastic properties of brain tissue in neurosurgical procedure and the hyperviscoelastic properties of liver tissue. The results show that the hyperviscoelastic constitutive is a suitable model to describe soft tissue behavior. Also, the mechanical properties of the tissue and needle velocity are effective on the displacement of the tissue's membrane and therefore in surgery accuracy.
0

221
231


Zahra
Matin Ghahfarokhi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Iran
z.matin@me.iut.ac.ir


Mehdi
Salmani Tehrani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Iran
tehrani@cc.iut.ac.ir


Mahdi
Moghimi Zand
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
mahdimoghimi@ut.ac.ir


Mojtaba
Mahzoon
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran
Iran
mahdimoghimi@gmail.com
finite element simulation
hyperviscoelastic model
needle insertion
soft tissue
[1. Goksel O., Salcudean S.E., P.Dimaio S., Rohling R., Morris J., 2005, 3D needletissue interaction simulation for prostate brachytherapy, Medical Image Computing and ComputerAssisted Intervention, MICCAI.##2. Abolhassani N., Patel R., Moallem M., 2007, Needle insertion into soft tissue: A survey, Med Eng Phys 29: 413431.##3. Simone C., Okamura A.M., 2002, Modeling of needle insertion forces for robotassisted percutaneous therapy, in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Washington, DC, 20852091.##4. Kobayashi Y., Watanabe H., Hossi T., Kawamura K., G.Fujie M., 2012, viscoelastic and nonlinear liver modeling for needle insertion simulation, Stus mechanobiol tissue eng biomater 11:4167.##5. Heverly M., Dupont P., Triedman J., 2005, Trajectory optimization for dynamic needle insertion, in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 16461651.##6. Duriez C., Guebrt C., Marchal M., Cotin S., Grisoni L., 2009, Interactive simulation of flexible needle insertion based on constraint models, Medical Image Computing and ComputerAssisted Intervention, MICCAI.##7. Samur E., Sedef M., Basdogan C., Avtan L., Duzgun O., 2007, A robotic indenter for minimally invasive measurement and characterization of soft tissue response, Medical Image Analysis 11:361373.##8. Miller K., 1999, Constitutive model of brain tissue suitable for finite element analysis of surgical procedures, J Biomech 32: 531537.##9. Sharifi Sedeh R., Ahmadian M.T., Janabi Sharifi F. (2010). Modeling, simulation, and optimal initiation planning for needle insertion into the liver, J Biomech Eng 132: 111.##10. Miller K., Chinzei K. (2002). Mechanical properties of brain tissue in tension, J Biomech 35: 483490.##11. Miller K., Chinzei K., Orssengo G., Bendnarz P. (2000). Mechanical properties of brain tissue invivo: experiment and computer simulation, J of Biomechanics 33: 13691376.##12. Rashid B., Destrade M., D.Gilchrist M. (2013). Mechanical characterization of brain tissue in simple shear at dynamic strain rates, J mech behav biomed mate 28: 7185.##13. Miller K., Chinzei K. (1997). Constitutive modeling of brain tissue: experiment and theory, J Biomech 30(11/12): 11151121.##14. Han P., Ehmann K. (2013). Study of the effect of cannula rotation on tissue cutting for needle biopsy, Med Eng Phys 35: 15841590.##15. M.Okamura A., Simone C., D. O,Leary M. (2004). Force modeling for needle insertion into soft tissue, In: Proceedings of the IEEE transactions biomedical engineering 51(10): 17071716.##16. Z.Moore J., Malukhin K., J.Shin A., F.Ehmann K. (2011). Hollow needle tissue insertion force model, CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 60: 157160.##17. Mahvash M., E.Dupont P. (2009). Fast needle insertionto minimize tissue deformation and damage, in: Proceedings of the IEEE International conference on robotics and automation, Kobe, Japan, 30973102.##18. Atkins A.G., Mai Y.W. (1985). Elastic and plastic fracture: metals, polymers, ceramics, composites, biological materials, Chichester: Ellis Halsted Press, 1st ed.##19. Lathrop A., Smith R., Webster R. (2008). Needlemembrane puncture mechanics, in: Proceedings of the International conference medical image computer assisted intervention , MICCAI.##20. Mahvash M., Hayward V. (2001). Haptic rendering of cutting, a fracture mechanics approach. Hapticse, Electron J Haptics Res 2(3): 112.##21. Mahvash M., E.Dupont P. (2010). Mechanics of Dynamic needle insertion into a biological material, IEEE Transactions biomedical engineering 57(4): 934943.##22. Gokgol C., Basdogan C., Canadinc D. (2012). Estimation of fracture toughness of liver tissue: experiments and validation, Med Eng Phys 34: 882891.##23. Yarpuzlu B., Ayyildiz M., Enis Tok O., Ranan Gulhan A., Cagatay B. (2014). Correltion between the mechanical and histological properties of liver tissue, J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 29: 403416.##24. Sharifi Sedeh R. (2005). Online control of needle injection in haptic devices into soft tissue using finite element method, MS thesis, Sharif University of technology, Iran (in Persian).##]
1

Optimum parameters of nonlinear integrator using design of experiments based on Taguchi method
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_55532.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.55532
1
For many physical systems like vehicles, acceleration can be easily measured for the respective states. However, the outputs are usually affected by stochastic noise disturbance. The mentioned systems are often sensitive to noise and structural uncertainties. Furthermore, it is very difficult to estimate the multiple integrals of the signal, acceleration to velocity and velocity to position. In this study, emphasis was on eliminating the drifting phenomenon caused by the noise disturbance. As a result, it is essential to find a reliable integrator to evaluate the multiple integrals of the signal. The goal of this experiment was to design a continuous lowdrift integrator to estimate the integrals of a proposed signal. In addition, the chattering is capable of amplifying the instability of the system and for this reason, it should be avoided. In this study, a solution method was introduced for this problem which is inspired by the designing of experiments based on the Taguchi method and therefore optimizes the parameters which are effective for minimizing the errors. The results show a reliable response in comparison to previous studies.
0

233
241


Masoud
Goharimanesh
Mechanical Engineering Department
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Mashhad, Iran
Iran
masoud_gohari@yahoo.com


Aliakbar
Akbari
Mechanicsl Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
akbari@um.ac.ir
nonlinear integrator
signal drifting
Taguchi Method
[1. O. Kubitz, M.O. Berger, M. Perlick, R. Dumoulin, Application of radio frequency identification devices to support navigation of autonomous mobile robots, Vehicular Technology Conference, 1997, IEEE 47th, IEEE, 1997, pp. 126130.##2. P. Misra, P. Enge, Global Positioning System: Signals, Measurements and Performance Second Edition, Lincoln, MA: GangaJamuna Press, 2006.##3. A. Butz, J. Baus, A. Kruger, Augmenting buildings with infrared information, Augmented Reality, 2000.(ISAR 2000). Proceedings. IEEE and ACM International Symposium on, IEEE, 2000, pp. 9396.##4. J. Newman, D. Ingram, A. Hopper, Augmented reality in a wide area sentient environment, Augmented Reality, 2001. Proceedings. IEEE and ACM International Symposium on, IEEE, 2001, pp. 7786.##5. R.A. Saeed, S. Khatun, B. Ali, M. Khazani, Performance of ultrawideband timeofarrival estimation enhanced with synchronization scheme, ECTI Trans. on Electrical Eng., Electronics and Communication, 4 (2006).##6. A. Habib, Integration of Photogrammetric and LIDAR Data for Accurate Reconstruction/Visualization of Urban Environments, Proceedings of the FIG Com3 Workshop on Spatial Information for Sustainable Management of Urban Areas, Mainz, Germany, 2009.##7. L. Ojeda, J. Borenstein, NonGPS navigation for emergency responders, 2006 International Joint Topical Meeting: Sharing Solutions for Emergencies and Hazardous Environments, 2006, pp. 1215.##8. X. Wang, B. Shirinzadeh, Nonlinear Multiple Integrator and Application to Aircraft Navigation, Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 50 (2014) 607622.##9. J. Borenstein, L. Ojeda, S. Kwanmuang, Heuristic reduction of gyro drift in IMUbased personnel tracking systems, SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2009, pp. 73061H73061H73011.##10. J.K. Shiau, C.X. Huang, M.Y. Chang, Noise characteristics of MEMS gyro’s null drift and temperature compensation, Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 15 (2012) 239246.##11. M. Goharimanesh, A. Akbari, A.A. Tootoonchi, More efficiency in fuel consumption using gearbox optimization based on Taguchi method, Journal of Industrial Engineering International, 10 (2014) 18.##]
1

Analytical Dynamic Modelling of Heeloff and Toeoff Motions for a 2D Humanoid Robot
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_56215.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.56215
1
The main objective of this article is to optimize the walking pattern of a 2D humanoid robot with heeloff and toeoff motions in order to minimize the energy consumption and maximize the stability margin. To this end, at first, a gait planning method is introduced based on the ankle and hip joint position trajectories. Then, using these trajectories and the inverse kinematics, the position trajectories of the knee joint and all joint angles are determined. Afterwards, the dynamic model of the 2D humanoid robot is derived using Lagrange and Kane methods. The dynamic model equations are obtained for different phases of motion and the unknowns, including ground reactions, and joint torques are also calculated. Next, the derived dynamic model is verified by comparing the position of the ZMP point based on the robot kinematics and the ground reactions. Then, the obtained trajectories have been optimized to determine the optimal heeloff and toeoff angles using a genetic algorithm (GA) by two different objective functions: minimum energy consumption and maximum stability margin. After optimization, a parametric analysis has been adopted to inspect the effects of heeloff and toeoff motions on the selected objective functions. Finally, it is concluded that to have more stable walking in high velocities, small angles of heeloff and toeoff motions are needed. Consequently, in low velocities, walking patterns with large angles of heeloff and toeoff motions are more stable. On the contrary, large heeloff and toeoff motions lead to less energy consumption in high velocities, while small heeloff and toeoff motions are suitable for low velocities. Another important point is that for the maximum stability optimization, compared to minimum energy consumption optimization, more heeloff and toeoff motions are needed.
0

243
256


Majid
Sadedel
Center of Advanced Systems and Technologies (CAST), School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Iran
majid.sadedel@ut.ac.ir


Aghil
Yousefikoma
Center of Advanced Systems and Technologies (CAST), School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
aykoma@ut.ac.ir


Faezeh
Iranmanesh
Center of Advanced Systems and Technologies (CAST), School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Iran
f.iranmanesh@ut.ac.ir
dynamic model
gait optimization
heeloff and toeoff motions
humanoid robot
[1. P. Channon, S. Hopkins, and D. Pham, "Derivation of optimal walking motions for a bipedal walking robot," Robotica, vol. 10, pp. 165172, 1992.##2. C. Chevallereau and Y. Aoustin, "Optimal reference trajectories for walking and running of a biped robot," Robotica, vol. 19, pp. 557569, 2001.##3. S. Kajita and K. Tani, "Study of dynamic biped locomotion on rugged terrainderivation and application of the linear inverted pendulum mode," in Robotics and Automation, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on, 1991, pp. 14051411.##4. S. Kajita, F. Kanehiro, K. Kaneko, K. Fujiwara, K. Harada, K. Yokoi, et al., "Biped walking pattern generation by using preview control of zeromoment point," in Robotics and Automation. Proceedings. ICRA'03. IEEE International Conference on, 2003, pp. 16201626.##5. J. H. Park and K. D. Kim, "Biped robot walking using gravitycompensated inverted pendulum mode and computed torque control," in Robotics and Automation, In: Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE 1998, pp. 35283533.##6. T. Sato, S. Sakaino, and K. Ohnishi, "Realtime walking trajectory generation method with threemass models at constant body height for threedimensional biped robots," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 58, pp. 376383, 2011.##7. Q. Huang, K. Yokoi, S. Kajita, K. Kaneko, H. Arai, N. Koyachi, et al., "Planning walking patterns for a biped robot," Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 17, pp. 280289, 2001.##8. M. Rostami and G. Bessonnet, "Sagittal gait of a biped robot during the single support phase. Part 2: optimal motion," Robotica, vol. 19, pp. 241253, 2001.##9. G. Capi, Y. Nasu, L. Barolli, K. Mitobe, and K. Takeda, "Application of genetic algorithms for biped robot gait synthesis optimization during walking and going upstairs," Advanced robotics, vol. 15, pp. 675694, 2001.##10. G. Bessonnet, S. Chesse, and P. Sardain, "Optimal gait synthesis of a sevenlink planar biped," The International journal of robotics research, vol. 23, pp. 10591073, 2004.##11. G. Bessonnet, P. Seguin, and P. Sardain, "A parametric optimization approach to walking pattern synthesis," The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 24, pp. 523536, 2005.##12. M. J. Sadigh and S. Mansouri, "Application of phaseplane method in generating minimum time solution for stable walking of biped robot with specified pattern of Motion," Robotica, vol. 31, pp. 837851, 2013.##13. G. Carbone, Y. Ogura, H.o. Lim, A. Takanishi, and M. Ceccarelli, "Dynamic simulation and experiments for the design of a new 7dofs biped walking leg module," Robotica, vol. 22, pp. 4150, 2004.##14. T. Buschmann, S. Lohmeier, and H. Ulbrich, "Humanoid robot lola: Design and walking control," Journal of physiologyParis, vol. 103, pp. 141148, 2009.##15. D. Tlalolini, C. Chevallereau, and Y. Aoustin, "Comparison of different gaits with rotation of the feet for a planar biped," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 57, pp. 371383, 2009.##16. S. Aoi and K. Tsuchiya, "Generation of bipedal walking through interactions among the robot dynamics, the oscillator dynamics, and the environment: Stability characteristics of a fivelink planar biped robot," Autonomous Robots, vol. 30, pp. 123141, 2011.##17. O. Kwon and J. H. Park, "Asymmetric trajectory generation and impedance control for running of biped robots," Autonomous Robots, vol. 26, pp. 4778, 2009.##18. S. Aoi and K. Tsuchiya, "Locomotion control of a biped robot using nonlinear oscillators," Autonomous robots, vol. 19, pp. 219232, 2005.##19. M. Sadedel, A. YousefiKoma, and M. Khadiv, "Offline path planning, dynamic modeling and gait optimization of a 2D humanoid robot," in Robotics and Mechatronics (ICRoM), Second RSI/ISM International Conference on, 2014, pp. 131136.##20. M. Khadiv, S. A. A. Moosavian, and M. Sadedel, "Dynamics modeling of fullyactuated humanoids with general robotenvironment interaction," in Robotics and Mechatronics (ICRoM), Second RSI/ISM International Conference on, 2014, pp. 233238.##21. ] M. Khadiv, S. A. A. Moosavian, A. YousefiKoma, M. Sadedel, and S. Mansouri, "Optimal gait planning for humanoids with 3D structure walking on slippery surfaces," Robotica, pp. 119, 2015.##22. T. Wang, C. Chevallereau, and C. F. Rengifo, "Walking and steering control for a 3D biped robot considering ground contact and stability," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 60, pp. 962977, 2012.##23. Y. Aoustin and A. Formalskii, "3D walking biped: optimal swing of the arms," Multibody System Dynamics, vol. 32, pp. 5566, 2014.##24. D. Tlalolini, C. Chevallereau, and Y. Aoustin, "Humanlike walking: Optimal motion of a bipedal robot with toerotation motion," Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on, vol. 16, pp. 310320, 2011.##25. M. Vukobratovic and D. Juricic, "Contribution to the synthesis of biped gait," Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, pp. 16, 1969.##26. A. Goswami, "Postural stability of biped robots and the footrotation indicator (FRI) point," The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 18, pp. 523533, 1999.##27. M. B. Popovic, A. Goswami, and H. Herr, "Ground reference points in legged locomotion: Definitions, biological trajectories and control implications," The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 24, pp. 10131032, 2005.##28. H. Hirukawa, S. Hattori, S. Kajita, K. Harada, K. Kaneko, F. Kanehiro, et al., "A pattern generator of humanoid robots walking on a rough terrain," in Robotics and Automation, IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 21812187.##29. M. Vukobratović and B. Borovac, "Zeromoment pointthirty five years of its life," International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, vol. 1, pp. 157173, 2004.##]
1

Thread Pitch Variant in Orthodontic Miniscrews: A 3D Finite Element Analysis
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_56213.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.56213
1
Orthodontic miniscrews are widely used as temporary anchorage devices to facilitate orthodontic movements. Miniscrew loosening is a common problem, which usually occurs during the first two weeks of treatment. Macrodesign can affect the stability of a miniscrew by changing its diameter, length, thread pitch, thread shape, tapering angle and so on. In this study, a 3D finite element analysis was done to show the effect of thread pitch variant on the stress distribution pattern of the screwcortical bone interface. While orthodontic forces were applied, stresses were usually concentrated at the first thread of the screw in contact with the cortical bone. The cortical bone provided a significant percentage of stability compared to the trabecular bone against orthodontic forces. Therefore, spongy bone was removed from the finite element analysis. The changes of maximum von Mises stresses were shown on the charts. The results showed that stresses decreased with decrease in thread pitch, but they increase when thread pitch becomes less than a certain value. The pattern of stress distribution differed when the stresses were increased. The results are beneficial for the design of an ergonomic dual miniscrew, with better properties than the commercially available miniscrews and based on the results, a new dual miniscrew is recommended.
0

257
265


Fatemeh
Mottaghi Dastenaei
Graduate MS Student, School of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Iran
fatemehmottaghi@gmail.com


Mahdi
Moghimi Zand
Assistant Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
mahdimoghimi@ut.ac.ir


Saeed
Noorolahian
Assistant Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
<s_noorollahian@dnt.mui.ac.ir>
dual design
FEA
miniscrew
orthodontics forces
thread pitch
[[1]. Chang J.Z.C., Chen Y.J., Tung Y.Y., Chiang Y.Y., Lai E.H.H., Chen W.P., Lin C.P., 2012, Effects of thread depth, taper shape, and taper length on the mechanical properties of miniimplants, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 141(3): 279288.## [2]. Basaran G., Ayna E., Basaran E.G., Unlu G., 2010, Restoration of posterior edentulous spaces after maxillary molar intrusion with fixed appliances (case report), Journal Of International Dental And Medical Research, 3(2): 6974.##[3]. Lin T.S., Tsai F.D., Chen C.Y., Lin L.W., 2013, Factorial analysis of variables affecting bone stress adjacent to the orthodontic anchorage miniimplant with finite element analysis, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 143(2): 182189.## [4]. Sathapana S., Forrest A., Monsour P., Naser‐ud‐Din S., 2013, Age‐related changes in maxillary and mandibular cortical bone thickness in relation to temporary anchorage device placement, Australian dental journal 58(1): 6774.##[5]. Lim S.A., Cha J.Y., Hwang C.J., 2008, Insertion torque of orthodontic miniscrews according to changes in shape, diameter and length, The Angle Orthodontist 78(2): 234240.##[6]. Yu J.H., Lin Y.S., Chang W.J., Chang Y.Z., Lin C.L., 2014, Mechanical effects of microthread orthodontic miniscrew design in relation to artificial cortical bone thickness, J Med Biol Eng 34: 4955.## [7]. Abuhussein H., Pagni G., Rebaudi A., Wang H.L., 2010, The effect of thread pattern upon implant osseointegration, Clinical oral implants research21(2): 129136.## [8]. Handa A., Hegde N., Reddy V.P., Chandrashekhar B.S., Arun A.V., Mahendra S., 2011, Effect of the thread pitch of orthodontic miniimplant on bone stress A 3D finite element analysis, inflammation 4: 7.##[9]. Curtis R.V., Watson T.F. (Eds.), 2014, Dental Biomaterials: Imaging, Testing and Modelling, Elsevier.##[10]. Duaibis R, Kusnoto B., Natarajan R., Zhao L., Evans C., 2012, Factors affecting stresses in cortical bone around miniscrew implants: a threedimensional finite element study, The Angle Orthodontist 82(5): 875880.## [11]. Eraslan O., İnan Ö, 2010, The effect of thread design on stress distribution in a solid screw implant: a 3D finite element analysis, Clinical oral investigations 14(4): 411416.## [12]. Alexander H., Ricci J.L., Hrico G.J., 2009, Mechanical basis for bone retention around dental implants, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials 88(2): 306311.## [13]. Tsouknidas A., Maropoulos S., Savvakis S., Michailidis N., 2011, FEM assisted evaluation of PMMA and Ti6Al4V as materials for cranioplasty resulting mechanical behaviour and the neurocranial protection, Biomedical materials and engineering 21(3): 139147.##[14]. Hofmann D.C., Suh J.Y., Wiest A., Lind M.L., Demetriou M.D., Johnson W.L., 2008, Development of tough, lowdensity titaniumbased bulk metallic glass matrix composites with tensile ductility, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(51): 2013620140.##[15]. Ahangari A.H., Geramy A., Valian A., 2008, Ferrule designs and stress distribution in endodontically treated upper central incisors: 3D finite element analysis, Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences 5(3): 105110.##[16]. Yu J.H., Lin Y.S., Chang W.J., Chang Y.Z., Lin C.L., 2014, Mechanical effects of microthread orthodontic miniscrew design in relation to artificial cortical bone thickness, J Med Biol Eng 34: 4955.##[17]. Kim Y.K., Kim Y.J., Yun P.Y., Kim J.W., 2009, Effects of the taper shape, dualthread, and length on the mechanical properties of miniimplants, The Angle orthodontist 79(5): 908914.##]
1

An empirical study on statistical analysis and optimization of EDM process parameters for inconel 718 super alloy using Doptimal approach and genetic algorithm
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_56214.html
10.22059/jcamech.2015.56214
1
Among the several nonconventional processes, electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the most widely and successfully applied for the machining of conductive parts. In this technique, the tool has no mechanical contact with the work piece and also the hardness of work piece has no effect on the machining pace. Hence, this technique could be employed to machine hard materials such as super alloys. Inconel 718 super alloy is a nickel based alloy that is mostly used in oil and gas, power stations and aerospace industries. In this study the effect of input EDM process parameters on Inconel 718 super alloy, is modeled and optimized. The process input parameters considered here include voltage (V), peak current (I), pulse on time (Ton) and duty factor (η). The process quality measures are surface roughness (SR) and material removal rate (MRR). The objective is to determine a combination of process parameters to minimize SR and maximize MRR. The experimental data are gathered based on Doptimal design of experiments. Then, statistical analyses and validation experiments have been carried out to select the best and most fitted regression models. In the last section of this research, genetic algorithm (GA) has been employed for optimization of the performance characteristics. Using the proposed optimization procedure, proper levels of input parameters for any desirable group of process outputs can be identified. A set of verification tests is also performed to verify the accuracy of optimization procedure in determining the optimal levels of machining parameters. The results indicate that the proposed modeling technique and genetic algorithm are quite efficient in modeling and optimization of EDM process parameters.
0

267
277


Masoud
Azadi Moghaddam
Ph.D. Candidate, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
masoudazadi888@gmail.com


Farhad
Kolahan
Associate Professor, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
kolahan@um.ac.ir
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)
Inconel 718 super alloy
Optimization
Genetic Algorithm (GA)
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
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