2020
51
1
0
0
1

Torsional wave propagation in 1D and two dimensional functionally graded rod
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_75415.html
10.22059/jcamech.2019.272234.350
1
In this study, torsional wave propagation is investigated in a rod that are made of one and two dimensional functionally graded material. Firstly, the governing equations of the wave propagation in the functionally graded cylinder derived in polar coordinate. Secondly, finite difference method is used to discretize the equations. The Von Neumann stability approach is used to obtain the time step size. Two states are assumed for material distribution, in first state it’s considered that the material variation occurred only in radial direction(Ti6A14V and Al2O3) and in second state the material properties vary in radial and length directions(BN, Al 1100, Ti6A14V and Al2O3). Moreover, the effect of cutoff frequency and boundary condition in wave propagation is studied. The results was validated by comparing the analytical and numerical solutions for an isotropic rode subjected to a torsional impulsive load. The results show that the torsional wave propagation in FGM rod evidently effects by material composition variation.
0

1
21


Alireza
Amiri
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Faculty of Shahid Nikbakht Engineering,University of Sistan and Baluchestan,zahedan,Iran
Iran
ali.amiri.bnd@gmail.com


Hossein
Rahmani
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Faculty of Shahid Nikbakht Engineering,University of Sistan and Baluchestan,zahedan,Iran
Iran
h_rahmani@eng.usb.ac.ir


Mohammad
Ahmadi Balootaki
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Faculty of Shahid Nikbakht Engineering,University of Sistan and Baluchestan,zahedan,Iran
Iran
m.ahmadibalootaki@pgs.usb.ac.ir
Functionally Graded Materials
Finite Difference Method
Wave Propagation
torsional wave
[[1] L. Pochhamer, Uber die Fortpflanzzungsgeshwindigkeiten kleiner Schwingungen in einem unbergrenzten isotropen Kreiscylinder, Zeitschrift fur Mathematik., Vol. 81, pp. 324, 1876.##[2] C. Chree, The equations of an isotropic elastic solid in polar and cylindrical coordinates their solution and application, Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Vol. 14, pp. 250, 1889.##[3] A. E. H. Love, 1906, A treatise on the mathematical theory of elasticity, at the University Press,##[4] H.S. Shen, 2016, Functionally graded materials: nonlinear analysis of plates and shells, CRC press,##[5] A. Berezovski, J. Engelbrecht, G. A. Maugin, Numerical simulation of twodimensional wave propagation in functionally graded materials, European Journal of MechanicsA/Solids, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 257265, 2003.##[6] R. M. Mahamood, E. T. Akinlabi, M. Shukla, S. Pityana, Functionally graded material: an overview, 2012.##[7] M. Z. Nejad, A. Hadi, A. Rastgoo, Buckling analysis of arbitrary twodirectional functionally graded Euler–Bernoulli nanobeams based on nonlocal elasticity theory, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 103, pp. 110, 2016.##[8] A. Daneshmehr, A. Rajabpoor, A. Hadi, Size dependent free vibration analysis of nanoplates made of functionally graded materials based on nonlocal elasticity theory with high order theories, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 95, pp. 2335, 2015.##[9] M. Z. Nejad, A. Hadi, Nonlocal analysis of free vibration of bidirectional functionally graded Euler–Bernoulli nanobeams, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 105, pp. 111, 2016.##[10] M. Z. Nejad, A. Hadi, A. Farajpour, Consistent couplestress theory for free vibration analysis of EulerBernoulli nanobeams made of arbitrary bidirectional functionally graded materials, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 161169, 2017.##[11] A. Hadi, M. Z. Nejad, A. Rastgoo, M. Hosseini, Buckling analysis of FGM EulerBernoulli nanobeams with 3Dvarying properties based on consistent couplestress theory, Steel and Composite Structures, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 663672, 2018.##[12] M. Hosseini, M. Shishesaz, A. Hadi, Thermoelastic analysis of rotating functionally graded micro/nanodisks of variable thickness, ThinWalled Structures, Vol. 134, pp. 508523, 2019.##[13] M. Zamani Nejad, A. Rastgoo, A. Hadi, Effect of exponentiallyvarying properties on displacements and stresses in pressurized functionally graded thick spherical shells with using iterative technique, Journal of Solid Mechanics, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 366377, 2014.##[14] M. Shishesaz, M. Hosseini, K. N. Tahan, A. Hadi, Analysis of functionally graded nanodisks under thermoelastic loading based on the strain gradient theory, Acta Mechanica, Vol. 228, No. 12, pp. 41414168, 2017.##[15] A. Barati, M. M. Adeli, A. Hadi, Static torsion of bidirectional functionally graded microtube based on the couple stress theory under magnetic field, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 2020.##[16] M. Z. Nejad, N. Alamzadeh, A. Hadi, Thermoelastoplastic analysis of FGM rotating thick cylindrical pressure vessels in linear elasticfully plastic condition, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 154, pp. 410422, 2018.##[17] R. Noroozi, A. Barati, A. Kazemi, S. Norouzi, A. Hadi, Torsional vibration analysis of bidirectional FG nanocone with arbitrary crosssection based on nonlocal strain gradient elasticity, Advances in Nano Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 1324, 2020.##[18] T.C. Chiu, F. Erdogan, Onedimensional wave propagation in a functionally graded elastic medium, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 222, No. 3, pp. 453487, 1999.##[19] S.H. Chi, Y.L. Chung, Mechanical behavior of functionally graded material plates under transverse load—Part I: Analysis, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 43, No. 13, pp. 36573674, 2006.##[20] S.H. Chi, Y.L. Chung, Mechanical behavior of functionally graded material plates under transverse load—Part II: Numerical results, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 43, No. 13, pp. 36753691, 2006.##[21] M. Dorduncu, M. K. Apalak, H. Cherukuri, Elastic wave propagation in functionally graded circular cylinders, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 73, pp. 3548, 2015.##[22] L. Elmaimouni, J. Lefebvre, V. Zhang, T. Gryba, Guided waves in radially graded cylinders: a polynomial approach, Ndt & E International, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 344353, 2005.##[23] M. Dorduncu, M. K. Apalak, Stress wave propagation in adhesively bonded functionally graded circular cylinders, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, Vol. 30, No. 12, pp. 12811309, 2016.##[24] J. Vollmann, D. M. Profunser, J. Bryner, J. Dual, Elastodynamic wave propagation in graded materials: simulations, experiments, phenomena, and applications, Ultrasonics, Vol. 44, pp. e1215e1221, 2006.##[25] D. Sun, S.N. Luo, Wave propagation and transient response of a FGM plate under a point impact load based on higherorder shear deformation theory, Composite Structures, Vol. 93, No. 5, pp. 14741484, 2011.##[26] K. Asemi, M. Akhlaghi, M. Salehi, Dynamic analysis of thick short length FGM cylinders, Meccanica, Vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 14411453, 2012.##[27] M. Shakeri, M. Akhlaghi, S. Hoseini, Vibration and radial wave propagation velocity in functionally graded thick hollow cylinder, Composite structures, Vol. 76, No. 12, pp. 174181, 2006.##[28] J. Yu, X. Yang, J. Lefebvre, C. Zhang, Wave propagation in graded rings with rectangular crosssections, Wave Motion, Vol. 52, pp. 160170, 2015.##[29] M. Asgari, Two dimensional functionally graded material finite thick hollow cylinder axisymmetric vibration mode shapes analysis based on exact elasticity theory, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 320, 2015.##[30] M. Asgari, Material optimization of functionally graded heterogeneous cylinder for wave propagation, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 50, No. 25, pp. 35253528, 2016.##[31] H. R. Hamidzadeh, R. N. Jazar, 2010, Vibrations of thick cylindrical structures, Springer,##[32] S. Xie, K. Liu, Transient torsional wave propagation in a transversely isotropic tube, Archive of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 68, No. 9, pp. 589596, 1998.##[33] H. Cherukuri, T. Shawki, A finite‐difference scheme for elastic wave propagation in a circular disk, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 100, No. 4, pp. 21392155, 1996.##[34] W. Johnson, 1983, Impact strength of materials.##]
1

A theoretical model for analysis of ionic polymer metal composite sensors in fluid environments
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76178.html
10.22059/jcamech.2019.282591.406
1
By the past two decades IPMCs have been intensively studied because of their special capabilities for actuation and sensing.This paper presents a theoretical physics based model for analyzing the behavior of IPMC sensors in fluid environments. The mechanical vibration of the IPMC strip is described by the classical Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. The model also takes in to account the physical properties of the surrounding fluid. The resulting model is an infinitedimensional transfer function that relates the input tip displacement to the output sensing current. Further the original model is reduced to a finitedimensional one, for pure sensing applications of IPMC sensors such as structural health monitoring. The proposed model is verified using existing experimental data. Then the effect of various parameters is investigated. The acoustics physics interface in COMSOL Multiphysics software is used for coupled modal analysis of the IPMC strip. It is shown that the effect of surrounding fluid cannot be neglected.
0

21
29


Mohammad Reza
Salehi Kolahi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Iran
mohammadsalehi1370@pgs.usb.ac.ir


Hossein
Moeinkhah
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Iran
hmoein@eng.usb.ac.ir
dynamic model
IPMC
Physical model
Smart Materials
[[1] M. Porfiri, H. Sharghi, P. Zhang, Modeling backrelaxation in ionic polymer metal composites: The role of steric effects and composite layers, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 123, No. 1, pp. 014901, 2018.##[2] H. Liu, K. Xiong, K. Bian, K. Zhu, Experimental study and electromechanical model analysis of the nonlinear deformation behavior of IPMC actuators, Acta Mechanica Sinica, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 382393, 2017.##[3] X. Chen, C.Y. Su, Adaptive control for ionic polymermetal composite actuators, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, Vol. 46, No. 10, pp. 14681477, 2016.##[4] I. Dominik, J. Kwaśniewski, F. Kaszuba, Ionic polymermetal composite displacement sensors, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 240, pp. 1016, 2016.##[5] D. Bandopadhya, Application of Lambert Wfunction for solving timedelayed response of smart material actuator under alternating electric potential, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 230, No. 13, pp. 21352144, 2016.##[6] D. Biswal, D. Bandopadhya, S. Dwivedy, Electromechanical and thermal characteristics of silverelectroded ionic polymer–metal composite actuator, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 226, No. 6, pp. 14271436, 2012.##[7] M. Shahinpoor, Y. BarCohen, J. Simpson, J. Smith, Ionic polymermetal composites (IPMCs) as biomimetic sensors, actuators and artificial musclesa review, Smart materials and structures, Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. R15, 1998.##[8] H. Moeinkhah, J.Y. Jung, J.H. Jeon, A. Akbarzadeh, J. Rezaeepazhand, K. Park, I.K. Oh, How does clamping pressure influence actuation performance of soft ionic polymer–metal composites?, Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 025014, 2013.##[9] D. Pugal, P. Solín, K. Kim, A. Aabloo, hpFEM electromechanical transduction model of ionic polymer–metal composites, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 260, pp. 135148, 2014.##[10] Q. Shen, V. Palmre, T. Stalbaum, K. J. Kim, A comprehensive physicsbased model encompassing variable surface resistance and underlying physics of ionic polymermetal composite actuators, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 118, No. 12, pp. 124904, 2015.##[11] Y. BarCohen, S. Leary, A. Yavrouian, K. Oguro, S. Tadokoro, J. Harrison, J. Smith, J. Su, Challenges to the transition of IPMC artificial muscle actuators to practical application, 1999.##[12] M. Shahinpoor, K. J. Kim, Ionic polymermetal composites: I. Fundamentals, Smart materials and structures, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 819, 2001.##[13] H. Moeinkhah, J. Rezaeepazhand, A. Akbarzadeh, I.K. Oh, Accurate dynamic modeling of helical ionic polymermetal composite actuator based on intrinsic equations, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 16801688, 2015.##[14] R. Tiwari, K. Kim, Discshaped ionic polymer metal composites for use in mechanoelectrical applications, Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 065016, 2010.##[15] D. Pugal, K. J. Kim, A. Aabloo, An explicit physicsbased model of ionic polymermetal composite actuators, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 110, No. 8, pp. 084904, 2011.##[16] D. Pugal, K. J. Kim, A. Punning, H. Kasemägi, M. Kruusmaa, A. Aabloo, A selfoscillating ionic polymermetal composite bending actuator, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, No. 8, pp. 084908, 2008.##[17] H. Lei, M. A. Sharif, X. Tan, Dynamics of omnidirectional IPMC sensor: Experimental characterization and physical modeling, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 601612, 2016.##[18] H. Moeinkhah, J. Rezaeepazhand, A. Akbarzadeh, Analytical dynamic modeling of a cantilever IPMC actuator based on a distributed electrical circuit, Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 055033, 2013.##[19] Z. Chen, X. Tan, A ControlOriented and PhysicsBased Model for Ionic PolymerMetal Composite Actuators, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 519529, 2008.##[20] P. De Gennes, K. Okumura, M. Shahinpoor, K. J. Kim, Mechanoelectric effects in ionic gels, EPL (Europhysics Letters), Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 513, 2000.##[21] K. Farinholt, D. J. Leo, Modeling of electromechanical charge sensing in ionic polymer transducers, Mechanics of Materials, Vol. 36, No. 56, pp. 421433, 2004.##[22] Z. Chen, X. Tan, A. Will, C. Ziel, A dynamic model for ionic polymer–metal composite sensors, Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 1477, 2007.##[23] M. Aureli, C. Prince, M. Porfiri, S. D. Peterson, Energy harvesting from base excitation of ionic polymer metal composites in fluid environments, Smart materials and Structures, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 015003, 2009.##[24] T. Ganley, D. L. Hung, G. Zhu, X. Tan, Modeling and inverse compensation of temperaturedependent ionic polymer–metal composite sensor dynamics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 8089, 2011.##[25] H. Lei, C. Lim, X. Tan, Modeling and inverse compensation of dynamics of baseexcited ionic polymer–metal composite sensors, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 24, No. 13, pp. 15571571, 2013.##[26] M. Patel, S. Mukherjee, Modelling and Analysis of Ionic Polymer Metal Composite based Energy Harvester, Materials Today: Proceedings, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 1981519827, 2018.##[27] H. F. Brinson, L. C. Brinson, Polymer engineering science and viscoelasticity, New York: Springer, Vol. 66, pp. 79, 2008.##[28] D. GutierrezLemini, 2014, Engineering viscoelasticity, Springer,##[29] P. Brunetto, L. Fortuna, S. Graziani, S. Strazzeri, A model of ionic polymer–metal composite actuators in underwater operations, Smart materials and Structures, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 025029, 2008.##[30] J. E. Sader, Frequency response of cantilever beams immersed in viscous fluids with applications to the atomic force microscope, Journal of applied physics, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 6476, 1998.##[31] E. B. Magrab, 2012, Vibrations of elastic systems: With applications to MEMS and NEMS, Springer Science & Business Media,##[32] S. S. Rao, 2007, Vibration of continuous systems, Wiley Online Library,##[33] S. NematNasser, J. Y. Li, Electromechanical response of ionic polymermetal composites, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, No. 7, pp. 33213331, 2000.##[34] C. A. Van Eysden, J. E. Sader, Resonant frequencies of a rectangular cantilever beam immersed in a fluid, Journal of applied physics, Vol. 100, No. 11, pp. 114916, 2006. ##]
1

Nonlocal elasticity theory for static torsion of the bidirectional functionally graded microtube under magnetic field
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_74866.html
10.22059/jcamech.2019.294263.462
1
The microtubes are important structures in nano electromechanical system .in this study a nonlocal model is presented to investigate the static torsion behavior of microtubes made of bidirectional factionally graded material (BDFGM) subjected to a longitudinal magnetic field. Mechanical properties of BDFGM microtube varies in the radial and longitudinal direction according to an arbitrary function. The governing equation is obtained using the principle of minimum potential energy. a sinusoidal distributed torque and uniform magnetic field with clamped boundary condition are considered to capture the effects of nonlocal parameter, FGM indexes and intensity of longitudinal magnetic field on the torsional angle of BDFGM microtube. The numerical solution of generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) is compared with Galerkin method which a reasonable agreement is observed. Result indicates that intensity of longitudinal magnetic has important role on the torsional angle of microtubes such that when intensity of longitudinal magnetic field increases the torsional angle of microtubes decreases
0

30
36


Abbas
Barati
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Iran
abbas.barati97@gmail.com


Saeed
Norouzi
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
saeednorouzi@ut.ac.ir
Static torsion
magnetic field
Microtube
Nonlocal Elasticity Theory
Bidirectional functionally graded materials (BDFGMs)
Generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM)
[[1] F.X. Ma, L. Yu, C.Y. Xu, X. W. D. Lou, Selfsupported formation of hierarchical NiCo 2 O 4 tetragonal microtubes with enhanced electrochemical properties, Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 862866, 2016.##[2] R. Halaui, E. Zussman, R. Khalfin, R. Semiat, Y. Cohen, Polymeric microtubes for water filtration by co‐axial electrospinning technique, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 570582, 2017.##[3] A. Setoodeh, M. Rezaei, M. Z. Shahri, Linear and nonlinear torsional free vibration of functionally graded micro/nanotubes based on modified couple stress theory, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 725740, 2016.##[4] A. Hadi, M. Z. Nejad, M. Hosseini, Vibrations of threedimensionally graded nanobeams, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 128, pp. 1223, 2018.##[5] A. Hadi, M. Z. Nejad, A. Rastgoo, M. Hosseini, Buckling analysis of FGM EulerBernoulli nanobeams with 3Dvarying properties based on consistent couplestress theory, Steel and Composite Structures, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 663672, 2018.##[6] A. Hadi, A. Rastgoo, N. Haghighipour, A. Bolhassani, Numerical modelling of a spheroid living cell membrane under hydrostatic pressure, Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, Vol. 2018, No. 8, pp. 083501, 2018.##[7] M. Hosseini, H. H. Gorgani, M. Shishesaz, A. Hadi, Sizedependent stress analysis of singlewall carbon nanotube based on strain gradient theory, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 9, No. 06, pp. 1750087, 2017.##[8] M. Mousavi Khoram, M. Hosseini, M. Shishesaz, A concise review of nanoplates, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 420429, 2019.##[9] A. C. Eringen, Nonlocal polar elastic continua, International journal of engineering science, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 116, 1972.##[10] A. C. Eringen, Theory of micromorphic materials with memory, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 10, No. 7, pp. 623641, 1972.##[11] A. C. Eringen, On differential equations of nonlocal elasticity and solutions of screw dislocation and surface waves, Journal of applied physics, Vol. 54, No. 9, pp. 47034710, 1983.##[12] R. Toupin, Elastic materials with couplestresses, 1962.##[13] D. C. Lam, F. Yang, A. Chong, J. Wang, P. Tong, Experiments and theory in strain gradient elasticity, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 51, No. 8, pp. 14771508, 2003.##[14] M. Z. Nejad, A. Hadi, A. Rastgoo, Buckling analysis of arbitrary twodirectional functionally graded Euler–Bernoulli nanobeams based on nonlocal elasticity theory, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 103, pp. 110, 2016.##[15] M. Z. Nejad, A. Hadi, Nonlocal analysis of free vibration of bidirectional functionally graded Euler–Bernoulli nanobeams, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 105, pp. 111, 2016.##[16] A. Daneshmehr, A. Rajabpoor, A. Hadi, Size dependent free vibration analysis of nanoplates made of functionally graded materials based on nonlocal elasticity theory with high order theories, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 95, pp. 2335, 2015.##[17] M. Z. Nejad, A. Hadi, Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory for bending analysis of bidirectional functionally graded Euler–Bernoulli nanobeams, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 106, pp. 19, 2016/09/01/, 2016.##[18] M. Z. Nejad, A. Hadi, A. Farajpour, Consistent couplestress theory for free vibration analysis of EulerBernoulli nanobeams made of arbitrary bidirectional functionally graded materials, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 161169, 2017.##[19] M. Hosseini, M. Shishesaz, K. N. Tahan, A. Hadi, Stress analysis of rotating nanodisks of variable thickness made of functionally graded materials, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 109, pp. 2953, 2016.##[20] M. Farajpour, A. Shahidi, A. Hadi, A. Farajpour, Influence of initial edge displacement on the nonlinear vibration, electrical and magnetic instabilities of magnetoelectroelastic nanofilms, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, Vol. 26, No. 17, pp. 14691481, 2019.##[21] M. M. Adeli, A. Hadi, M. Hosseini, H. H. Gorgani, Torsional vibration of nanocone based on nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theory, The European Physical Journal Plus, Vol. 132, No. 9, pp. 393, 2017.##[22] M. Shishesaz, M. Hosseini, K. N. Tahan, A. Hadi, Analysis of functionally graded nanodisks under thermoelastic loading based on the strain gradient theory, Acta Mechanica, Vol. 228, No. 12, pp. 41414168, 2017.##[23] M. Z. Nejad, A. Hadi, A. Omidvari, A. Rastgoo, Bending analysis of bidirectional functionally graded EulerBernoulli nanobeams using integral form of Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 67, No. 4, pp. 417425, 2018.##[24] M. Hosseini, M. Shishesaz, A. Hadi, Thermoelastic analysis of rotating functionally graded micro/nanodisks of variable thickness, ThinWalled Structures, Vol. 134, pp. 508523, 2019.##[25] E. Zarezadeh, V. Hosseini, A. Hadi, Torsional vibration of functionally graded nanorod under magnetic field supported by a generalized torsional foundation based on nonlocal elasticity theory, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, pp. 116, 2019.##[26] M. Mohammadi, M. Hosseini, M. Shishesaz, A. Hadi, A. Rastgoo, Primary and secondary resonance analysis of porous functionally graded nanobeam resting on a nonlinear foundation subjected to mechanical and electrical loads, European Journal of MechanicsA/Solids, Vol. 77, pp. 103793, 2019.##[27] A. Soleimani, K. Dastani, A. Hadi, M. H. Naei, Effect of outofplane defects on the postbuckling behavior of graphene sheets based on nonlocal elasticity theory, Steel and Composite Structures, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 517534, 2019.##[28] A. Hadi, A. Rastgoo, A. Bolhassani, N. Haghighipour, Effects of stretching on molecular transfer from cell membrane by forming pores, Soft Materials, pp. 19, 2019.##[29] H. H. Gorgani, M. M. Adeli, M. Hosseini, Pullin behavior of functionally graded micro/nanobeams for MEMS and NEMS switches, Microsystem Technologies, Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 31653173, 2019.##[30] M. Shishesaz, M. Hosseini, Mechanical behavior of functionally graded nanocylinders under radial pressure based on strain gradient theory, Journal of Mechanics, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 441454, 2019.##[31] M. Z. Nejad, A. Rastgoo, A. Hadi, Exact elastoplastic analysis of rotating disks made of functionally graded materials, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 85, pp. 4757, 2014.##[32] Z. Mazarei, M. Z. Nejad, A. Hadi, Thermoelastoplastic analysis of thickwalled spherical pressure vessels made of functionally graded materials, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 8, No. 04, pp. 1650054, 2016.##[33] M. Gharibi, M. Zamani Nejad, A. Hadi, Elastic analysis of functionally graded rotating thick cylindrical pressure vessels with exponentiallyvarying properties using power series method of Frobenius, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 8998, 2017.##[34] M. Z. Nejad, A. Rastgoo, A. Hadi, Effect of exponentiallyvarying properties on displacements and stresses in pressurized functionally graded thick spherical shells with using iterative technique, Journal of Solid Mechanics, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 366377, 2014.##[35] M. Zamani Nejad, M. Jabbari, A. Hadi, A review of functionally graded thick cylindrical and conical shells, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 357370, 2017.##[36] M. Z. Nejad, N. Alamzadeh, A. Hadi, Thermoelastoplastic analysis of FGM rotating thick cylindrical pressure vessels in linear elasticfully plastic condition, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 154, pp. 410422, 2018.##[37] S. Sahmani, M. M. Aghdam, Size dependency in axial postbuckling behavior of hybrid FGM exponential shear deformable nanoshells based on the nonlocal elasticity theory, Composite Structures, Vol. 166, pp. 104113, 2017/04/15/, 2017.##[38] F. Ebrahimi, M. R. Barati, Hygrothermal effects on vibration characteristics of viscoelastic FG nanobeams based on nonlocal strain gradient theory, Composite Structures, Vol. 159, pp. 433444, 2017/01/01/, 2017.##[39] F. Ebrahimi, M. R. Barati, A nonlocal strain gradient refined beam model for buckling analysis of sizedependent sheardeformable curved FG nanobeams, Composite Structures, Vol. 159, pp. 174182, 2017/01/01/, 2017.##[40] A. G. Arani, E. Haghparast, Z. K. Maraghi, S. Amir, Nonlocal vibration and instability analysis of embedded DWCNT conveying fluid under magnetic field with slip conditions consideration, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 229, No. 2, pp. 349363, 2015.##[41] T. Murmu, S. Adhikari, M. McCarthy, Axial vibration of embedded nanorods under transverse magnetic field effects via nonlocal elastic continuum theory, Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 12301236, 2014.##[42] T.P. Chang, Nonlinear vibration of singlewalled carbon nanotubes with nonlinear damping and random material properties under magnetic field, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 114, pp. 6979, 2017.##[43] G. Wu, The analysis of dynamic instability and vibration motions of a pinned beam with transverse magnetic fields and thermal loads, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 284, No. 12, pp. 343360, 2005.##[44] H. Wang, K. Dong, F. Men, Y. Yan, X. Wang, Influences of longitudinal magnetic field on wave propagation in carbon nanotubes embedded in elastic matrix, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 878889, 2010.##[45] S. Narendar, S. Gupta, S. Gopalakrishnan, Wave propagation in singlewalled carbon nanotube under longitudinal magnetic field using nonlocal Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 36, No. 9, pp. 45294538, 2012.##[46] C. Li, A nonlocal analytical approach for torsion of cylindrical nanostructures and the existence of higherorder stress and geometric boundaries, Composite Structures, Vol. 118, pp. 607621, 2014.##[47] R. Barretta, L. Feo, R. Luciano, F. Marotti de Sciarra, R. Penna, Nanobeams under torsion: a stressdriven nonlocal approach, PSU Research Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 164169, 2017.##[48] T. Murmu, M. McCarthy, S. Adhikari, Vibration response of doublewalled carbon nanotubes subjected to an externally applied longitudinal magnetic field: a nonlocal elasticity approach, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 331, No. 23, pp. 50695086, 2012.##[49] T.P. Chang, 2018. Nonlinear free vibration analysis of nanobeams under magnetic field based on nonlocal elasticity theory, Journal of Vibroengineering, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2016. ##]
1

Subcooled twophase flow boiling in a microchannel heat sink: comparison of conventional numerical models
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76978.html
10.22059/jcamech.2019.285994.417
1
Subcooled flow boiling in multimicrochannels can be used as an efficient thermal management approach in compact electrical devices. Highly subcooled flow boiling of HFE 7100 is studied in two microchannel heat sinks to choose a proper numerical model for simulating boiling flows in microchannels. Results of five different numerical models, including Volume of Fluid (VOF), Eulerian boiling, Eulerian Lee, Eulerian thermal phase change, and mixture models, were compared with experimental data. ANSYS Fluent was used as the numerical tool to solve threedimensional governing equations. Results were obtained in the steadystate condition of the transient solution. The average wall temperature reached a steady state in all models except in Eulerian boiling and mixture models. It was found that Eulerian thermal phase change and VOF models predicted microchannel’s bottom wall average temperature with less than 2% error. VOF model predicted flow boiling regime as it was reported in the experimental research and boiling curves. Velocity distribution over microchannel height was investigated, and it was observed that after the onset of nucleate boiling, the velocity profile becomes asymmetrical. Also, in the twophase regions, each phase had a different velocity magnitude and distribution. Based on flow regime and temperature results, which were compared with experimental data, VOF model was recommended as the best model to simulate flow boiling in microchannels at the working conditions of this research. Furthermore, subcooled flow boiling’s capability to be used in thermal management systems was proved while observing temperature distribution over computational domain.
0

37
45


Ali
Soleimani
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ali.soleimani632@ut.ac.ir


Pedram
Hanafizadeh
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
hanafizadeh@ut.ac.ir


Amirmohammad
Sattari
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
amirmsattari@ut.ac.ir
Subcooled flow boiling
Microchannel
Heat Sink
CFD
VOF model
[[1] D. B. Tuckerman and R. F. W. Pease, “Highperformance heat sinking for VLSI,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 126–129, May 1981.##[2] C. L. Ong and J. R. Thome, “Macrotomicrochannel transition in twophase flow: Part 1 – Twophase flow patterns and film thickness measurements,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 37–47, Jan. 2011.##[3] G. Karniadakis, A. Beskok, and N. Aluru, Microflows and Nanoflows, vol. 29. New York: SpringerVerlag, 2005.##[4] M. Hatami and D. D. Ganji, “Thermal and flow analysis of microchannel heat sink (MCHS) cooled by Cu–water nanofluid using porous media approach and least square method,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 78, pp. 347–358, Feb. 2014.##[5] B. H. Salman, H. A. Mohammed, K. M. Munisamy, and A. S. Kherbeet, “Characteristics of heat transfer and fluid flow in microtube and microchannel using conventional fluids and nanofluids: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 28, pp. 848–880, Dec. 2013.##[6] A. K. M. M. Morshed, F. Yang, M. Yakut Ali, J. A. Khan, and C. Li, “Enhanced flow boiling in a microchannel with integration of nanowires,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 68–75, Jan. 2012.##[7] T. Harirchian and S. V. Garimella, “Flow regimebased modeling of heat transfer and pressure drop in microchannel flow boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1246–1260, Jan. 2012.##[8] B. Agostini, J. R. Thome, M. Fabbri, B. Michel, D. Calmi, and U. Kloter, “High heat flux flow boiling in silicon multimicrochannels – Part I: Heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant R236fa,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 51, no. 21–22, pp. 5400–5414, Oct. 2008.##[9] P. C. Lee and C. Pan, “Boiling heat transfer and twophase flow of water in a single shallow microchannel with a uniform or diverging cross section,” J. Micromechanics Microengineering, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 025005, Feb. 2008.##[10] J. Lee and I. Mudawar, “Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of low temperature twophase microchannel heat sinks – Part 1: Experimental methods and flow visualization results,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 51, no. 17–18, pp. 4315–4326, Aug. 2008.##[11] G. Oguntala, R. Abdalhameed, G. Sobamowo, and I. Danjuma, “Performance, thermal stability and optimum design analyses of rectangular fin with temperaturedependent, thermal properties and Internal heat generation,” vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2018.##[12] A. Alizadehdakhel, M. Rahimi, and A. A. Alsairafi, “CFD modeling of flow and heat transfer in a thermosyphon,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 312–318, Mar. 2010.##[13] Y. W. Kuang, W. Wang, R. Zhuan, and C. C. Yi, “Simulation of boiling flow in evaporator of separate type heat pipe with low heat flux,” Ann. Nucl. Energy, vol. 75, pp. 158–167, Jan. 2015.##[14] E. Abedini, A. Behzadmehr, S. M. H. Sarvari, and S. H. Mansouri, “Numerical investigation of subcooled flow boiling of a nanofluid,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., vol. 64, pp. 232–239, Feb. 2013.##[15] I. Behroyan, P. Ganesan, S. He, and S. Sivasankaran, “CFD models comparative study on nanofluids subcooled flow boiling in a vertical pipe,” Numer. Heat Transf. Part A Appl., vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 55–74, Jan. 2018.##[16] A. Mukherjee and S. G. Kandlikar, “Numerical simulation of growth of a vapor bubble during flow boiling of water in a microchannel,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 137–145, May 2005.##[17] A. Mukherjee, S. G. Kandlikar, and Z. J. Edel, “Numerical study of bubble growth and wall heat transfer during flow boiling in a microchannel,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 54, no. 15–16, pp. 3702–3718, Jul. 2011.##[18] M. Magnini, B. Pulvirenti, and J. R. Thome, “Numerical investigation of hydrodynamics and heat transfer of elongated bubbles during flow boiling in a microchannel,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 451–471, Apr. 2013.##[19] C. Fang, M. David, A. Rogacs, and K. Goodson, “VOLUME OF FLUID SIMULATION OF BOILING TWOPHASE FLOW IN A VAPORVENTING MICROCHANNEL,” Front. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 1, no. 1, Jun. 2010.##[20] R. Zhuan and W. Wang, “Flow pattern of boiling in microchannel by numerical simulation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 55, no. 5–6, pp. 1741–1753, Dec. 2011.##[21] R. Zhuan and W. Wang, “Simulation of subcooled flow boiling in a microchannel,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 781–795, May 2011.##[22] ANSYS FLUENT, “User’s Guide (Release 18.2).” ANSYS Inc, 2017.##[23] W. H. Lee, “A pressure iteration scheme for twophase modeling,” Los Alamos Sci. Lab. Los Alamos, New Mex. Tech. Rep. LAUR, pp. 79–975, 1979.##[24] N. Kurul, “On the modeling of multidimensional effects in boiling channels,” ANS. Proc. Natl. Heat Transf. Con. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 1991, 1991.##[25] V. I. Tolubinsky and D. M. Kostanchuk, “Vapour bubbles growth rate and heat transfer intensity at subcooled water boiling,” in International Heat Transfer Conference 4, 1970, vol. 23.##[26] M. Misale, G. Guglielmini, and A. Priarone, “HFE7100 pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in inclined narrow spaces,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 235–245, Mar. 2009.##]
1

Numerical Study of a Pipe Extension Effect in Draft Tube on Hydraulic Turbine Performance
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_75928.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.289370.433
1
Draft tube of Francis type hydraulic turbine usually consists of: cone, elbow and diffuser. On the contrary, in some power stations an extra pipe should be added to the draft tube at the bottom of cone because of installation limitation. In this paper, this special case has been numerically studied. To this end CFD analysis was applied to simulate all parts of hydraulic turbine. A homogeneous multiphase model with RayleighPlesset cavitation model was applied for presence of cavitation. The results reveal that the additional tube causes pressure drop and severe cavitation at the trailing edge of runner blades. Also, results showed that the efficiency reduces in comparison with original hilldiagram of model test in which this extension was not considered. With the removal of the extension tube, the efficiency increased significantly. The comparison of pressure recovery factors along draft tube, and theoretical investigation showed that the height of the draft tube is an important parameter and addition of an extra pipe will cause reduction in draft tube performance and increases the probability of occurrence of cavitation under the runner.
0

46
54


Jafar
Nejadali
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
Iran
j.nejad@umz.ac.ir


Alireza
Riasi
School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ariasi@ut.ac.ir
CFD Simulation
Hydraulic turbine
Draft tube
Cavitation
Pressure recovery factor
[[1] H. Keck, M. Sick, Thirty years of numerical flow simulation in hydraulic turbomachines, Acta mechanica, Vol. 201, No. 14, pp. 211229, 2008.##[2] J. Hellström, B. Marjavaara, T. Lundström, Parallel CFD simulations of an original and redesigned hydraulic turbine draft tube, Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 338344, 2007.##[3] M. Mohammadi, E. Hajidavalloo, M. BehbahaniNejad, Investigation on Combined Air and Water Injection in Francis Turbine Draft Tube to Reduce Vortex Rope Effects, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 141, No. 5, pp. 051301, 2019.##[4] J. Yang, Q. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Ding, X. Jiang, Effects of inlet cavitation on swirling flow in drafttube cone, Engineering Computations, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 16941705, 2018.##[5] J. Yang, L. Zhou, Z. Wang, The numerical simulation of draft tube cavitation in Francis turbine at offdesign conditions, Engineering Computations, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 139155, 2016.##[6] T. M. Arispe, W. de Oliveira, R. G. Ramirez, Francis turbine draft tube parameterization and analysis of performance characteristics using CFD techniques, Renewable energy, Vol. 127, pp. 114124, 2018.##[7] M. H. Shojaeefard, A. Mirzaei, A. Babaei, Shape optimization of draft tubes for Agnew microhydro turbines, Energy conversion and management, Vol. 79, pp. 681689, 2014.##[8] H. Foroutan, S. Yavuzkurt, An axisymmetric model for draft tube flow at partial load, Journal of Hydrodynamics, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 195205, 2016.##[9] M. chol Nam, B. Dechun, Y. Xiangji, J. Mingri, Design optimization of hydraulic turbine draft tube based on CFD and DOE method, in Proceeding of, IOP Publishing, pp. 012019.##[10] G. Demirel, E. Acar, K. Celebioglu, S. Aradag, CFDdriven surrogatebased multiobjective shape optimization of an elbow type draft tube, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 42, No. 28, pp. 1760117610, 2017.##[11] R. SusanResiga, G. D. Ciocan, I. Anton, F. Avellan, Analysis of the swirling flow downstream a Francis turbine runner, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 1, pp. 177189, 2006.##[12] P. Gohil, R. Saini, Numerical Study of Cavitation in Francis Turbine of a Small Hydro Power Plant, Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2016.##[13] K. Anup, Y. H. Lee, B. Thapa, CFD study on prediction of vortex shedding in draft tube of Francis turbine and vortex control techniques, Renewable energy, Vol. 86, pp. 14061421, 2016.##[14] J. Nejad, A. Riasi, A. Nourbakhsh, Parametric study and performance improvement of regenerative flow pump considering the modification in blade and casing geometry, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 18871906, 2017.##[15] M. Morgut, D. Jošt, A. Škerlavaj, E. Nobile, G. Contento, Numerical Predictions of Cavitating Flow Around a Marine Propeller and Kaplan Turbine Runner with Calibrated Cavitation Models, Strojniski Vestnik/Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 64, No. 9, 2018.##[16] F. Avellan, Introduction to cavitation in hydraulic machinery, Politehnica University of Timișoara, pp. 2004.##[17] H. Zhang, L. Zhang, Numerical simulation of cavitating turbulent flow in a high head Francis turbine at part load operation with OpenFOAM, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 31, pp. 156165, 2012.##[18] R. Goyal, M. J. Cervantes, B. K. Gandhi, Vortex rope formation in a high head model Francis turbine, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 139, No. 4, pp. 041102, 2017.##[19] R. SusanResiga, S. Muntean, A. Stuparu, A. Bosioc, C. Tănasă, C. Ighişan, A variational model for swirling flow states with stagnant region, European Journal of MechanicsB/Fluids, Vol. 55, pp. 104115, 2016.##[20] B. Mulu, M. Cervantes, C. Devals, T. Vu, F. Guibault, Simulationbased investigation of unsteady flow in nearhub region of a Kaplan Turbine with experimental comparison, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 139156, 2015.##[21] R. SusanResiga, S. Muntean, V. Hasmatuchi, I. Anton, F. Avellan, Analysis and prevention of vortex breakdown in the simplified discharge cone of a Francis turbine, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 5, pp. 051102, 2010. ##]
1

Pareto Optimal Balancing of Fourbar Mechanisms Using MultiObjective Differential Evolution Algorithm
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76185.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.290187.435
1
Fourbar mechanisms are widely used in the industry especially in rotary engines. These mechanisms are usually applied for attaining a special motion duty like path generation; their high speeds in the industry cause an unbalancing problem. Hence, dynamic balancing is essential for their greater efficiency. In this research study, a multiobjective differential evolution algorithm is used for Pareto optimization balancing of a fourbar planar mechanism while considering the shaking moment and horizontal and vertical shaking forces as objective functions. This is necessary since the high magnitude of shaking forces and moment affect the fatigue life of the mechanism. The design variables are both kinematic and dynamic parameters of the moving links. The Pareto charts of fiveobjective optimization exhibit a large number of nondominated points, which provide more choices for optimal balancing design of the planar fourbar mechanism. A comparison of the results obtained from this study with those reported in the literature shows a significant decrease in shaking forces and shaking moment.
0

55
65


Ghazal
Etesami
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Iran
ghazal_etesami@phd.guilan.ac.ir


Mohammad Ebrahim
Felezi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Iran
mefelezi@guilan.ac.ir


Nader
Narimanzadeh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Iran
nnzadeh@guilan.ac.ir
Multiobjective optimization
Balancing
Fourbar mechanism
Differential evolution algorithm
Pareto
[[1] S. S. Rao, 2009, Engineering optimization: theory and practice, John Wiley & Sons,##[2] A. Moradi, A. M. Nafchi, A. Ghanbarzadeh, E. Soodmand, Optimization of linear and nonlinear full vehicle model for improving ride comfort vs. road holding with the Bees Algorithm, in Proceeding of, IEEE, pp. 1722.##[3] A. Moradi, K. H. Shirazi, M. Keshavarz, A. D. Falehi, M. Moradi, Smart piezoelectric patch in nonlinear beam: design, vibration control and optimal location, Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 131144, 2014.##[4] C. A. C. Coello, G. B. Lamont, D. A. Van Veldhuizen, 2007, Evolutionary algorithms for solving multiobjective problems, Springer,##[5] M. E. Felezi, S. Vahabi, N. NarimanZadeh, Pareto optimal design of reconfigurable rice seedling transplanting mechanisms using multiobjective genetic algorithm, Neural Computing and Applications, Vol. 27, No. 7, pp. 19071916, 2016.##[6] M. Salehpour, G. Etesami, A. Jamali, N. Narimanzadeh, Improving ride and handling of vehicle vibration model using Pareto robust genetic algorithms, in Proceeding of, IEEE, pp. 272276.##[7] A. Moradi, H. Makvandi, I. B. Salehpoor, Multi objective optimization of the vibration analysis of composite natural gas pipelines in nonlinear thermal and humidity environment under nonuniform magnetic field, JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL APPLIED MECHANICS, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 5364, 2017.##[8] B. C. Arnold, 2015, Pareto distributions, Chapman and Hall/CRC,##[9] R. Storn, K. Price, Differential evolution–a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces, Journal of global optimization, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 341359, 1997.##[10] H. Wang, W. Wang, Z. Cui, H. Sun, S. Rahnamayan, Heterogeneous differential evolution for numerical optimization, The Scientific World Journal, Vol. 2014, 2014.##[11] J. Tvrdık, Competitive differential evolution and genetic algorithm in GADS toolbox, Tech. Comput. Prague, Praha, Humusoft, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 99106, 2006.##[12] G. Etesami, M. E. Felezi, N. NarimanZadeh, Pareto Optimal MultiObjective Dynamical Balancing of a SliderCrank Mechanism Using Differential Evolution Algorithm, The International Journal of Automotive Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 30213032, 2019.##[13] F. Qiao, H. Miao, Optimization design for planar fourbar mechanism based on differential evolution, in Proceeding of.##[14] R. R. Bulatović, S. R. Dordević, On the optimum synthesis of a fourbar linkage using differential evolution and method of variable controlled deviations, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 235246, 2009.##[15] W. Lin, K. Hsiao, A new differential evolution algorithm with a combined mutation strategy for optimum synthesis of pathgenerating fourbar mechanisms, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 231, No. 14, pp. 26902705, 2017.##[16] M. G. VillarrealCervantes, C. A. CruzVillar, J. AlvarezGallegos, E. A. PortillaFlores, Differential evolution techniques for the structurecontrol design of a fivebar parallel robot, Engineering Optimization, Vol. 42, No. 6, pp. 535565, 2010.##[17] P. Shiakolas, D. Koladiya, J. Kebrle, On the optimum synthesis of sixbar linkages using differential evolution and the geometric centroid of precision positions technique, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 319335, 2005.##[18] B. Feng, N. Morita, T. Torii, A new optimization method for dynamic design of planar linkage with clearances at joints—optimizing the mass distribution of links to reduce the change of joint forces, Journal of mechanical design, Vol. 124, No. 1, pp. 6873, 2002.##[19] Z. Ye, M. Smith, Complete balancing of planar linkages by an equivalence method, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 701712, 1994.##[20] Z. Li, Sensitivity and robustness of mechanism balancing, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 33, No. 7, pp. 10451054, 1998.##[21] V. Arakelian, M. Dahan, Partial shaking moment balancing of fully force balanced linkages, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 36, No. 1112, pp. 12411252, 2001.##[22] V. H. Arakelian, M. Smith, Shaking force and shaking moment balancing of mechanisms: a historical review with new examples, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 127, No. 2, pp. 334339, 2005.##[23] V. Arakelian, Shaking moment cancellation of selfbalanced slider–crank mechanical systems by means of optimum mass redistribution, Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 846850, 2006.##[24] F. R. Tepper, G. G. Lowen, General theorems concerning full force balancing of planar linkages by internal mass redistribution, Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 94, No. 3, pp. 789796, 1972.##[25] I. Esat, H. Bahai, A theory of complete force and moment balancing of planer linkage mechanisms, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 903922, 1999.##[26] S. Erkaya, Investigation of balancing problem for a planar mechanism using genetic algorithm, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 27, No. 7, pp. 21532160, 2013.##[27] A. Lilla, M. Khan, P. Barendse, Comparison of differential evolution and genetic algorithm in the design of permanent magnet generators, in Proceeding of, IEEE, pp. 266271.##[28] N. K. Madavan, B. A. Biegel, Multiobjective optimization using a Pareto differential evolution approach, 2002.##[29] K. Chaudhary, H. Chaudhary, Optimum Balancing of Slidercrank Mechanism Using Equimomental System of Pointmasses, Procedia Technology, Vol. 14, pp. 35–42, 12/31, 2014. ##]
1

Ultrasonic guided waves reflection from simple dent in pipe for defect rate estimation and parameters determination of axisymmetric wave generation source
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_75098.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.297249.478
1
In this paper, the reflection of ultrasonic guided waves from simple dent in pipes has been investigated using finite element method and the relationship between reflection coefficient of these waves and deformation rate has been determined. Also, the effect of the parameters of wave generation source on the generated wave field has been investigated using normal modes expansion method. At first, ultrasonic guided waves propagation has been studied in an intact pipe to obtain multiple modes using of displacement potential method. The characteristic equation has been solved using a matlab code in order to draw the dispersion curves of phase and group velocities in different frequencies for longitudinal modes, and it is observed that mode L(0,2) is a suitable mode for inspection in a range of frequency 200300 kHz. The single sided dent is created in pipe using a plasticity analysis with the aid of finite element simulation and then L(0,2) mode is generated in pipe. By Investigation of the reflection of this mode from dent, the relationship between reflection coefficient and deformation rate is specified and it has been observed that this relationship is almost linear by curve fitting. Also, it has been observed in case of partial loading by wave generation source that is a transducer with a specified axial length and circumferential coverage angle, a combination of different modes such as L(0,2) mode is generated in pipe, if using a axisymmetric wave generation source including 8 segments 45 degree, only L(0,2) symmetric mode is generated.
0

66
71


Pezhman
Taghipour birgani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.
Iran
p_taghipour@iauahvaz.ac.ir
Ultrasonic Guided Waves
Dent
Deformation Rate
Wave Reflection Coefficient
Source parameters
[[1] D. N. Alleyne, P. Cawley, The effect of discontinuities on the longrange propagation of Lamb waves in pipes, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 210, No. 3, pp. 217226, 1996.##[2] D. N. Alleyne, M. J. S. Lowe, P. Cawley, The reflection of guided waves from circumferential notches in pipes, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 635641, 1998.##[3] M. J. S. Lowe, D. N. Alleyne, P. Cawley, The mode conversion of a guided wave by a partcircumferential notch in a pipe, Journal of Applied mechanics, Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 649656, 1998.##[4] D. N. Alleyne, B. Pavlakovic, M. J. S. Lowe, P. Cawley, Rapid, long range inspection of chemical plant pipework using guided waves, in Proceeding of, AIP, pp. 180187.##[5] K. A. Macdonald, A. Cosham, C. R. Alexander, P. Hopkins, Assessing mechanical damage in offshore pipelines–Two case studies, J Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 14, No. 8, pp. 16671679, 2007.##[6] W. B. Na, T. Kundu, Underwater pipeline inspection using guided waves, J. Pressure Vessel Technol., Vol. 124, No. 2, pp. 196200, 2002.##[7] J. L. Rose, 2014, Ultrasonic guided waves in solid media, Cambridge university press,##[8] S. Ma, Z. Wu, Y. Wang, K. Liu, The reflection of guided waves from simple dents in pipes, J Ultrasonics, Vol. 57, pp. 190197, 2015.##[9] F. P. Baaijens, W. R. Trickey, T. A. Laursen, F. Guilak, Large deformation finite element analysis of micropipette aspiration to determine the mechanical properties of the chondrocyte, Annals of biomedical engineering, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 494501, 2005.##[10] M. Dao, C. T. Lim, S. Suresh, Mechanics of the human red blood cell deformed by optical tweezers, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 51, No. 1112, pp. 22592280, 2003.##[11] D. N. Alleyne, P. Cawley, Optimization of Lamb wave inspection techniques, J NDT&E International, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 1122, 1992.##[12] M. J. S. Lowe, D. N. Alleyne, P. Cawley, Defect detection in pipes using guided waves, J Ultrasonics, Vol. 36, No. 15, pp. 147154, 1998.##[13] J. Mu, Guided wave propagation and focusing in viscoelastic multilayered hollow cylinders, Thesis, Ph. D thesis, Engineering Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 2008.##[14] P. T. Birgani, K. N. Tahan, S. Sodagar, M. Shishesaz, Suitable parameters determination of lamb wave generation source with lowattenuation for threelayer adhesive joints inspection, J Modares Mechanical Engineering##Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 6374, 2015.##[15] J. J. Ditri, J. L. Rose, Excitation of guided elastic wave modes in hollow cylinders by applied surface tractions, Journal of applied physics, Vol. 72, No. 7, pp. 25892597, 1992.##[16] J. J. Ditri, J. L. Rose, Excitation of guided waves in generally anisotropic layers using finite sources, Journal Applied Mechanics, Vol. 61, pp. 330338, 1994.##[17] J. Achenbach, 1984, Wave propagation in elastic solids, North Holland, Amsterdam, 1 st paperbacked.##]
1

Simulationbased Vibration Sensor Placement for Centrifugal Pump Impeller Fault Detection
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76979.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.298391.485
1
In this paper, a simulationbased method is proposed for optimal placement of vibration sensors for the purpose of fault detection in a centrifugal pump. The centrifugal pump is modeled to investigate the effect of vane tip fault on fluid flow patterns numerically. Pressure pulsations are investigated at different locations at the inner surface of the pump before and after the presence of the fault to determine the best location for installing vibration sensors on the pump casing. Experiments are also conducted by mounting accelerometers at various locations on the pump casing. Simulation and experimental results are then compared and a direct correlation between changes in PSD amplitudes of pressure and acceleration signals was observed. The optimum location for placement of an accelerometer is determined to be near the volute tongue on the casing where the highest level of pressure pulsations in the simulation is also calculated in the presence of vane tip fault.
0

72
80


Alireza
Zabihihesari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, York University, Ontario, Canada
Canada
zabihi@yorku.ca


Farzad
A. Shirazi
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
fshirazi@ut.ac.ir


Alireza
Riasi
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ariasi@ut.ac.ir


Mohammad
Mahjoob
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
mmahjoob@ut.ac.ir


Erfan
Asnaashari
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
erfan.asnaashari@ut.ac.ir
CFD Simulation
Vibration
Sensor Placement
Centrifugal Pump
Fault Detection
[[1] E. P. Carden, P. Fanning, Vibration based condition monitoring: a review, Structural health monitoring, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 355377, 2004.##[2] J. K. Sinha, K. Elbhbah, A future possibility of vibration based condition monitoring of rotating machines, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 34, No. 12, pp. 231240, 2013.##[3] A. ZabihiHesari, S. AnsariRad, F. A. Shirazi, M. Ayati, Fault detection and diagnosis of a 12cylinder trainset diesel engine based on vibration signature analysis and neural network, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 233, No. 6, pp. 19101923, 2019.##[4] F. A. Shirazi, M. Ayati, A. ZabihiHesari, S. AnsariRad, Fuel Injection Fault Detection in a Diesel Engine Based on Vibration Signature Analysis, in Proceeding of, The 5th Iranian International NDT Conference, pp. 17.##[5] M. Ayati, F. A. Shirazi, S. AnsariRad, A. Zabihihesari, ClassificationBased Fuel Injection Fault Detection of a Trainset Diesel Engine Using Vibration Signature Analysis, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol. 142, No. 5, 2020.##[6] R. Isermann, 2011, Faultdiagnosis applications: modelbased condition monitoring: actuators, drives, machinery, plants, sensors, and faulttolerant systems, Springer Science & Business Media,##[7] S. Orhan, N. Aktürk, V. Celik, Vibration monitoring for defect diagnosis of rolling element bearings as a predictive maintenance tool: Comprehensive case studies, Ndt & E International, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 293298, 2006.##[8] Z. Peng, F. Chu, Application of the wavelet transform in machine condition monitoring and fault diagnostics: a review with bibliography, Mechanical systems and signal processing, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 199221, 2004.##[9] A. Jami, Impeller fault detection under fluctuating flow conditions using artificial neural networks, Thesis, University of Pretoria, 2016.##[10] M. Saberi, A. Azadeh, A. Nourmohammadzadeh, P. Pazhoheshfar, Comparing performance and robustness of SVM and ANN for fault diagnosis in a centrifugal pump, in Proceeding of.##[11] N. Sakthivel, B. B. Nair, M. Elangovan, V. Sugumaran, S. Saravanmurugan, Comparison of dimensionality reduction techniques for the fault diagnosis of mono block centrifugal pump using vibration signals, Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 3038, 2014.##[12] M. Nasiri, M. Mahjoob, H. VahidAlizadeh, Vibration signature analysis for detecting cavitation in centrifugal pumps using neural networks, in Proceeding of, IEEE, pp. 632635.##[13] M. A. S. Al Tobi, G. Bevan, K. Ramachandran, P. Wallace, D. Harrison, Experimental setup for investigation of fault diagnosis of a centrifugal pump, Int. J. Mech. Aerospace Ind. Mechatronic Manuf. Eng, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 481485, 2017.##[14] A. AlBraik, O. Hamomd, F. Gu, A. Ball, Diagnosis of impeller faults in a centrifugal pump based on spectrum analysis of vibration signals, in Proceeding of, British Institute of NonDestructive Testing, pp.##[15] E. Niazi, M. Mahjoob, A. Bangian, Experimental and numerical study of cavitation in centrifugal pumps, in Proceeding of, American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection, pp. 395400.##[16] A. A. Abdel Fatah, M. A. Hassan, M. Lotfy, A. S. Dimitri, Health Monitoring of Centrifugal Pumps Using Digital Models, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol. 141, No. 9, 2019.##[17] R. Spence, J. AmaralTeixeira, Investigation into pressure pulsations in a centrifugal pump using numerical methods supported by industrial tests, Computers & fluids, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 690704, 2008.##[18] J. Gonza´ lez, J. n. Ferna´ ndez, E. Blanco, C. Santolaria, Numerical simulation of the dynamic effects due to impellervolute interaction in a centrifugal pump, J. Fluids Eng., Vol. 124, No. 2, pp. 348355, 2002.##[19] C. Mullen, T. Vaughan, M. Voisin, M. Brennan, P. Layrolle, L. McNamara, Cell morphology and focal adhesion location alters internal cell stress, Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 11, No. 101, pp. 20140885, 2014.##[20] R. Barrio, J. Parrondo, E. Blanco, Numerical analysis of the unsteady flow in the neartongue region in a volutetype centrifugal pump for different operating points, Computers & Fluids, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 859870, 2010.##[21] A. A. Noon, M.H. Kim, Erosion wear on centrifugal pump casing due to slurry flow, Wear, Vol. 364, pp. 103111, 2016.##[22] K. Guleren, A. Pinarbasi, Numerical simulation of the stalled flow within a vaned centrifugal pump, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 218, No. 4, pp. 425435, 2004.##[23] Y. Fu, J. Yuan, S. Yuan, G. Pace, L. d'Agostino, P. Huang, X. Li, Numerical and experimental analysis of flow phenomena in a centrifugal pump operating under low flow rates, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 137, No. 1, 2015.##[24] K. Cheah, T. Lee, S. Winoto, Z. Zhao, Numerical flow simulation in a centrifugal pump at design and offdesign conditions, International Journal of Rotating Machinery, Vol. 2007, 2007.##[25] L. Obregon, G. Valencia, J. D. Forero, Efficiency Optimization Study of a Centrifugal Pump for Industrial Dredging Applications Using CFD, 2019.##]
1

Thermoelastic Response of a Rotating Hollow Cylinder Based on Generalized Model with Higher Order Derivatives and PhaseLags
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76980.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.299581.493
1
Generalized thermoelastic models have been developed with the aim of eliminating the contradiction in the infinite velocity of heat propagation inherent in the classical dynamical coupled thermoelasticity theory. In these generalized models, the basic equations include thermal relaxation times and they are of hyperbolic type. Furthermore, Tzou established the dualphaselag heat conduction theory by including two different phasedelays correlating with the heat flow and temperature gradient. Chandrasekharaiah introduced a generalized model improved from the heat conduction model established by Tzou. The present work treats with a novel generalized model of higher order derivatives heat conduction. Using Taylor series expansion, the Fourier law of heat conduction is advanced by introducing different phase lags for the heat flux and the temperature gradient vectors. Based on this new model, the thermoelastic behavior of a rotating hollow cylinder is analyzed analytically. The governing differential equations are solved in a numerical form using the Laplace transform technique. Numerical calculations are displayed tables and graphs to clarify the effects of the higher order and the rotation parameters. Finally, the results obtained are verified with those in previous literature.
0

81
90


Amr
Hassan
Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Arts, Jouf University, Gurayat, Saudi Arabia
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518, Egypt
Egypt
amrsoleiman@yahoo.com


Ahmed
Abouelregal
Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Arts, Jouf University, Gurayat, Saudi Arabia
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
Egypt
ahabogal@gmail.com


KhalilM
Khalil
Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Arts, Jouf University, Gurayat, Saudi Arabia
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518, Egypt
Egypt
khalil.khalil@fsc.bu.edu.eg


Mohamed
Nasr
Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Arts, Jouf University, Gurayat, Saudi Arabia
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518, Egypt
Egypt
mohamed.naser@fsc.bu.edu.eg
Thermoelasticity
HigherOrder
Phaselags
rotation
Hollow cylinder
[[1] M. Biot, Thermoelasticity and Irreversible Thermodynamics, Journal of Applied Physics Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 240253, 1956.##[2] H. Lord, Y. Shulman, A generalized dynamical theory of thermoelasticity, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 299309, 1967.##[3] A. E. Green, K. A. Lindsay, Thermoelasticity, Journal of Elasticity, Vol. 2, pp. 17, 1972.##[4] A. E. Green, P.M. Naghdi, A reexamination of the basic postulates of thermomechanics, proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Vol. 432, pp. 171194, 1991.##[5] A. E. Green, P. M. Naghdi, Thermoelasticity without energy dissipation, Journal of Elasticity, Vol. 31, pp. 189208, 1993.##[6] D. Y. Tzou, Thermal Shock Phenomena in Solids Under HighRate Response, Annual Review of Heat Transfer, Vol. 4, pp. 111185, 1992.##[7] D. Y. Tzou, A unified field approach for heat conduction from macroto microscales, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 117, No. 1, pp. 816, 1995.##[8] D. Y. Tzou, The generalized lagging response in smallscale and highrate heating, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 38, No. 17, pp. 32313240, 1995.##[9] D. S. Chandrasekharaiah, Hyperbolic thermoelasticity: a review of recent literature, Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol. 51, No. 12, pp. 705729, 1998.##[10] R. B. Hetnarski, J. Ignaczak, Generalized thermoelasticity, Journal of Thermal Stresses, Vol. 22, No. 45, pp. 451476, 1999.##[11] J. Ignaczak, Generalized thermoelasticity and its applications, in: R. B. Hetnarski, Mechanics and Mathematical Methods, Eds., pp. 279354, North Holland: Elsevier Science Publications B. v., 1989.##[12] R. Quintanilla, R. Racke, A note on stability in dualphaselag heat conduction, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 49, No. 78, pp. 12091213, 2006.##[13] R. Quintanilla, R. Racke, Qualitative Aspects in Dual PhaseLag Heat Conduction, proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Vol. 463, pp. 659674, 2007.##[14] A. M. Zenkour, A.E. Abouelregal, Effects of phaselags in a thermoviscoelastic orthotropic continuum with a cylindrical hole and variable thermal conductivity, Archives of Mechanics, Vol. 67, No. 6, pp. 457475, 2015.##[15] A. M. Zenkour, D.S. Mashat, A.E. Abouelregal, The Effect of DualPhaseLag Model on Reflection of Thermoelastic Waves in a Solid Half Space with Variable Material Properties, Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, Vol. 26, pp. 659–670, 2013.##[16] S. Kant, S. Mukhopadhyay, Investigation on effects of stochastic loading at the boundary under thermoelasticity with two relaxation parameters, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 54, pp. 648669, 2018.##[17] K. Borgmeyer, R. Quintanilla, R. Racke, PhaseLag Heat Condition: Decay Rates for Limit Problems and WellPosedness, Journal of Evolution Equations, Vol. 14, pp. 863–884, 2014.##[18] Z. Liu, R. Quintanilla, Time Decay in DualPhaseLag Thermoelasticity: Critical Case, Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 177190, 2018.##[19] F. L. Guo, G. Q. Wang, G. A. Rogerson, Analysis of thermoelastic damping in micro and nanomechanical resonators based on dualphaselagging generalized thermoelasticity theory, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 60, pp. 5965, 2012.##[20] B. N. Banerjee, R. A. Burton, Thermoelastic instability in lubricated sliding between solid surfaces, Nature, Vol. 261, pp. 399–400, 1976.##[21] A. K. Wong, S. A. Dunn, J. G. Sparrow, Residual stress measurement by means of the thermoelastic effect, Nature, Vol. 332, pp. 613–615, 1988.##[22] M. Z. Nejad, M. Jabbari, A. Hadi, A review of functionally graded thick cylindrical and conical shells, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 357370, 2017.##[23] M. Hosseini, M. Shishesaz, A. Hadi, Thermoelastic analysis of rotating functionally graded micro/nanodisks of variable thickness, ThinWalled Structures, Vol. 134, pp. 508523, 2019.##[24] M. Z. Nejad, N. Alamzadeh, A. Hadi, Thermoelastoplastic analysis of FGM rotating thick cylindrical pressure vessels in linear elasticfully plastic condition, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 154, pp. 410422, 2018.##[25] A. Hadi, A. Rastgoo, N. Haghighipour, A. Bolhassani, Numerical modelling of a spheroid living cell membrane under hydrostatic pressure, Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, Vol. 2018, No. 8, pp. 083501, 2018.##[26] M. Gharibi, M. Z. Nejad, A. Hadi, Elastic analysis of functionally graded rotating thick cylindrical pressure vessels with exponentiallyvarying properties using power series method of Frobenius, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 8998, 2017.##[27] S. Chiriţă, Highorder effects of thermal lagging in deformable conductors, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 127, No. Part C, pp. 965974, 2018.##[28] S. Chiriţă, On the time differential dualphaselag thermoelastic model, Meccanica, Vol. 52, pp. 349–361, 2017.##[29] A. E. Abouelregal, Modified fractional thermoelasticity model with multirelaxation times of higher order: application to spherical cavity exposed to a harmonic varying heat, Waves in Random and Complex Media, 17 Jun, 2019.##[30] A. E. Abouelregal, M. A. Elhagary, A. Soleiman, K. M. Khalil, Generalized thermoelasticdiffusion model with higherorder fractional timederivatives and fourphaselags, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, pp. 118, 2020.##[31] C. Cattaneo, A Form of HeatConduction Equations Which Eliminates the Paradox of Instantaneous Propagation, Comptes Rendus, Vol. 247, pp. 431433, 1958.##[32] P. Vernotte, Les paradoxes de la theorie continue de l'equation de la chaleur, Comptes Rendus, Vol. 246, pp. 31543155, 1958.##[33] N. S. Clarke, J. S. Burdess, Rayleigh Waves on a Rotating Surface, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 724726, 1994.##[34] M. A. A. Abdou, M. I. A. Othman, R. S. Tantawi, N. T. Mansour, Effect of Rotation and Gravity on Generalized Thermoelastic Medium with Double Porosity under LS Theory, Journal of Materials Science & Nanotechnology, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 304317, 2018.##[35] A. Gunghas, R. Kumar, S. Deswal, K. K. Kalkal, Influence of Rotation and Magnetic Fields on a Functionally Graded Thermoelastic Solid Subjected to a Mechanical Load, Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 2019, pp. 116, 2019.##[36] A. E. Abouelregal, On Green and Naghdi Thermoelasticity Model without Energy Dissipation with Higher Order Time Differential and PhaseLags, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 445456, 2020.##[37] A. E. Abouelregal, Twotemperature thermoelastic model without energy dissipation including higher order timederivatives and two phaselags, Materials Research Express, Vol. 6:116535, No. 11, 2019.##[38] A. M. Zenkour, A. E. Abouelregal, Nonlocal thermoelastic vibrations for variable thermal conductivity nanobeams due to harmonically varying heat, Journal of Vibroengineering, Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 36653678, 2014.##[39] G. Honig, U. Hirdes, A method for the numerical inversion of Laplace Transform, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 10, pp. 113132, 1984.##[40] D. Y. Tzou, Experimental support for the lagging behavior in heat propagation, Journal of thermophysics and heat transfer, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 686693, 1995.##[41] M. I. A. Othman, A. E. Abouelregal, Magnetothermoelstic analysis for an infinite solid cylinder with variable thermal conductivity due to harmonically varying heat, Microsystem Technologies, Vol. 23, No. 12, pp. 5635–5644, 2017. ##]
1

An investigation of tensile strength of Ti6Al4V titanium screw inside femur bone using finite element and experimental tests
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76981.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.299796.494
1
The geometric optimization of orthopedic screws can considerably increase their orthopedic efficiency. Due to the high geometric parameters of orthopedic screws, a finite element simulation is an effective tool for analyzing and forecasting the effect of the parameters on the loadbearing capacity of different types of screws and bones. Thus, in the present study, the tensile strength of a typical cortical titanium screw was investigated by the finite element method, and experimental tests confirmed the obtained results. The behavior of the screw in the tensile test was discussed in terms of stress, force, and displacement. The maximum force results show a 14% difference between simulation and experimental works in tensile type loading. Moreover, it was suggested that the trend of force curves in both the experimental test and numerical simulation shows high similarity, and FEM predicts the process with acceptable accuracy. Furthermore, it was concluded that the stress values are higher while moving toward the top surface of the bone.
0

91
97


Peyman
Mashhadi Keshtiban
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran
Iran
m.keshtiban@mee.uut.ac.ir


Milad
Regbat
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran
Iran
uutsld@gmail.com


Mohsen
Mashhadi Keshtiban
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
mohsen_kashtiban@yahoo.com
Finite element
tensile test
Femur Bone
[[1] J.D. Kim, N.S. Kim, C.S. Hong, C.Y. Oh, Design optimization of a xenogeneic bone plate and screws using the Taguchi and finite element methods, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 11191124, 2011.##[2] S.M. Hou, C.C. Hsu, J.L. Wang, C.K. Chao, J. Lin, Mechanical tests and finite element models for bone holding power of tibial locking screws, Clinical Biomechanics, Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 738745, 2004.##[3] C.K. Chao, C.C. Hsu, J.L. Wang, J. Lin, Increasing bending strength of tibial locking screws: mechanical tests and finite element analyses, Clinical Biomechanics, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 5966, 2007.##[4] K. Haase, G. Rouhi, Prediction of stress shielding around an orthopedic screw: Using stress and strain energy density as mechanical stimuli, Computers in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 11, pp. 17481757, 2013.##[5] T. Wu, H. Fan, R. Ma, H. Chen, Z. Li, H. Yu, Effect of lubricant on the reliability of dental implant abutment screw joint: an in vitro laboratory and threedimension finite element analysis, Materials Science and Engineering: C, Vol. 75, pp. 297304, 2017.##[6] H. Ketata, F. Affes, M. Kharrat, M. Dammak, A comparative study of tapped and untapped pilot holes for bicortical orthopedic screws–3D finite element analysis with an experimental test, Biomedical Engineering/Biomedizinische Technik, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 563570, 2019.##[7] J. R. Mau, K. M. Hawkins, S. L.Y. Woo, K. E. Kim, M. B. McCullough, Design of a new magnesiumbased anterior cruciate ligament interference screw using finite element analysis, Journal of Orthopaedic Translation, Vol. 20, pp. 2530, 2020.##[8] Y. Naidubabu, V. Kondaiah, R. Dumpala, B. R. Sunil, Assessing the MaterialDependent Stress Distribution in Fractured Bone and Orthopedic Fixing Plate by Finite Element Analysis, in: Advances in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Eds., pp. 337342: Springer, 2020.##[9] L. Yan, J. L. Lim, J. W. Lee, C. S. H. Tia, G. K. O’Neill, D. Y. Chong, Finite element analysis of bone and implant stresses for customized 3Dprinted orthopaedic implants in fracture fixation, Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, pp. 111, 2020.##[10] J. Li, Z. Zhao, P. Yin, L. Zhang, P. Tang, Comparison of three different internal fixation implants in treatment of femoral neck fracture—a finite element analysis, Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 76, 2019.##[11] E. Tetteh, M. B. McCullough, Impact of screw thread shape on stress transfer in bone: a finite element study, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, pp. 16, 2020.##[12] N. Zain, R. Daud, N. Aziz, K. Ahmad, A. Ismail, B. Izzawati, Stress analysis prediction on screw orthopedic implant in trabecular bone, Materials Today: Proceedings, Vol. 16, pp. 18381845, 2019.##[13] K. Alam, A. Mitrofanov, V. V. Silberschmidt, Experimental investigations of forces and torque in conventional and ultrasonicallyassisted drilling of cortical bone, Medical engineering & physics, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 234239, 2011.##[14] S. Eberle, C. Gerber, G. Von Oldenburg, S. Hungerer, P. Augat, Type of hip fracture determines load share in intramedullary osteosynthesis, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®, Vol. 467, No. 8, pp. 19721980, 2009. ##]
1

Dynamic response determination of viscoelastic annular plates using FSDT – perturbation approach
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76982.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.283714.414
1
In this paper, the transient response of a viscoelastic annular plate which has timedependent properties is determined mathematically under dynamic transverse load. The axisymmetric conditions are considered in the problem. The viscoelastic properties obey the standard linear solid model in shear and the bulk behavior in elastic. The equations of motion are extracted using Hamilton’s principle by small deformation assumption for the elastic condition and they are extended to the viscoelastic form by defining viscoelastic operators based on the separating the bulk and shear behaviors. The displacement field is defined with the first order shear deformation theory by considering the transverse normal strain effect. These equations which contain four coupled partial differential equations with variable coefficients are solved using the perturbation technique. The results are compared with those obtained from the classical plate theory and the finite element method. The presented formulation is useful for parametric study because it does not need to generate mesh and selecting time step for each model; also the running time is short with respect to the finite elements method. For sensitivity analysis, the effects of geometrical and mechanical parameters on the response are investigated by parametric study.
0

98
106


Hamidreza
Eipakchi
Faculty of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, I.R. IRAN
Iran
hamidre_2000@yahoo.com


Saeed
Khadem Moshir
Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Canada
s_hademm@encs.concordia.ca
Viscoelastic annular plate
Mathematical solution
Perturbation Technique
Dynamic response
First order shear deformation theory
[1. Zaremsky, G.J., Aircraft brake. 1993, Google Patents.##2. Chauhan, A. and Y. Kapoor, Contact lens based bioactive agent delivery system. 2011, Google Patents.##3. Ilyasov, M.H., Dynamic stability of viscoelastic plates. International journal of engineering science, 2007. 45(1): p. 111122.##4. Robertson, S.R., Forced axisymmetric motion of circular, viscoelastic plates. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1971. 17(3): p. 363381.##5. Wang, Y.Z. and T.J. Tsai, Static and dynamic analysis of a viscoelastic plate by the finite element method. Applied Acoustics, 1988. 25(2): p. 7794.##6. Chen, T.M., The hybrid Laplace transform/finite element method applied to the quasi‐static and dynamic analysis of viscoelastic Timoshenko beams. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 1995. 38(3): p. 509522.##7. Abdoun, F., et al., Forced harmonic response of viscoelastic structures by an asymptotic numerical method. Computers & Structures, 2009. 87(12): p. 91100.##8. Assie, A.E., M.A. Eltaher, and F.F. Mahmoud, The response of viscoelasticfrictionless bodies under normal impact. International journal of mechanical sciences, 2010. 52(3): p. 446454.##9. Khalfi, B. and A. Ross, Transient response of a plate with partial constrained viscoelastic layer damping. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2013. 68: p. 304312.##10. Amoushahi, H. and M. Azhari, Static and instability analysis of moderately thick viscoelastic plates using a fully discretized nonlinear finite strip formulation. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2014. 56: p. 222231.##11. Liang, X., et al., Semianalytical solution for threedimensional transient response of functionally graded annular plate on a two parameter viscoelastic foundation. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2014. 333(12): p. 26492663.##12. Gupta, A.K. and L. Kumar, Vibration of nonhomogeneous viscoelastic circular plate of linearly varying thickness in steady state temperature field. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2010. 48(1): p. 255266.##13. Pawlus, D., Dynamic behaviour of threelayered annular plates with viscoelastic core under lateral loads. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2015. 53(4): p. 775788.##14. Panigrahi, S.K. and K. Das, Ballistic impact analyses of triangular corrugated plates filled with foam core. Advances in Computational Design, 2016. 1(2): p. 139154.##15. Kumar, A. and S. Panda, Optimal damping in circular cylindrical sandwich shells with a threelayered viscoelastic composite core. Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, 2017. 139(6).##16. Behera, S. and P. Kumari, Free vibration of Levytype rectangular laminated plates using efficient zigzag theory. Advances in Computational Design, 2018. 3(3): p. 213232.##17. Ajri, M., M. Fakhrabadi, and A. Rastgoo, Analytical solution for nonlinear dynamic behavior of viscoelastic nanoplates modeled by consistent couple stress theory. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 2018. 15(9).##18. Ajri, M., A. Rastgoo, and M. Fakhrabadi, Primary and secondary resonance analyses of viscoelastic nanoplates based on strain gradient theory. International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 2018. 10(10): p. 1850109.##19. Ajri, M. and M. Fakhrabadi, Nonlinear free vibration of viscoelastic nanoplates based on modified couple stress theory. Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, 2018. 49(1): p. 4453.##20. Ajri, M., A. Rastgoo, and M. Fakhrabadi, How does flexoelectricity affect static bending and nonlinear dynamic response of nanoscale lipid bilayers? Physica Scripta, 2019. 95(2): p. 025001.##21. Ajri, M., A. Rastgoo, and M. Fakhrabadi, Nonstationary vibration and superharmonic resonances of nonlinear viscoelastic nanoresonators. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 2019. 70(5): p. 623637.##22. Sadd, M.H., Elasticity: Theory, Applications, and Numerics. 2009: Academic Press.##23. Wang, C.M., J.N. Reddy, and K.H. Lee, Shear Deformable Beams and Plates: Relationships with Classical Solutions. 2000: Elsevier.##24. Riande, E., et al., Polymer Viscoelasticity: Stress and Strain in Practice. 1999: CRC Press.##25. Suzuki, K., et al., Axisymmetric vibrations of a vessel with variable thickness. Bulletin of JSME, 1982. 25(208): p. 15911600.##26. Nayfeh, A.H., Introduction to Perturbation Techniques. 2011: John Wiley & Sons.##27. Moshir, S.K., H.R. Eipakchi, and F. Sohani, Free vibration behavior of viscoelastic annular plates using first order shear deformation theory. Struct. Eng. Mech, 2017. 62(5): p. 607618.##28. Hagedorn, P. and A. DasGupta, Vibrations and Waves in Continuous Mechanical Systems. 2007: Wiley Online Library.##29. ANSYS Element Reference, www.ansys.stuba.sk##]
1

Least squares weighted residual method for finding the elastic stress fields in rectangular plates under uniaxial parabolically distributed edge loads
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76983.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.298074.484
1
In this work, the least squares weighted residual method is used to solve the twodimensional (2D) elasticity problem of a rectangular plate of inplane dimensions 2a 2b subjected to parabolic edge tensile loads applied at the two edges x = a. The problem is expressed using Beltrami–Michell stress formulation. Airy’s stress function method is applied to the stress compatibility equation, and the problem is expressed as a boundary value problem (BVP) represented by a nonhomogeneous biharmonic equation. Airy’s stress functions are chosen in terms of one and three unknown parameters and coordinate functions that satisfy both the domain equations and the boundary conditions on the loaded edges. Least squares weighted residual integral formulations of the problems are solved to determine the unknown parameters and thus the Airy stress function. The normal and shear stress fields are determined for the oneparameter and the threeparameter coordinate functions. The solutions for the stress fields are found to satisfy the stress boundary conditions as well as the domain equation. The presented solutions for the Airy stress function and the normal stresses and shear stress fields are identical with solutions obtained by using variational Ritz methods, Bubnov–Galerkin methods and agree with results obtained by Timoshenko and Goodier.
0

107
121


Charles C.
Ike
Department of Civil Engineering, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nigeria
ikecc2007@yahoo.com


Clifford U.
Nwoji
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nigeria
ugo.nwoji@unn.edu.ng


Benjamin O.
Mama
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nigeria
benjamin.mama@unn.edu.ng


Hyginus N.
Onah
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nigeria
hyginus.onah@unn.edu.ng


Michael E.
Onyia
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nigeria
michael.onyia@unn.edu.ng
Least squares weighted residual method
Airy stress potential function
Biharmonic equation
Beltrami – Michell stress compatibility equation
Normal stresses
Shear stress fields
1

Investigation of instable fluid velocity in pipes with internal nanofluid flow based on NavierStokes equations
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76984.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.300244.496
1
In this article, the instable fluid velocity in the pipes with internal nanofluid is studied. The fluid is mixed by SiO2, AL2O3, CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles in which the equivalent characteristic of nanofluid is calculated by rule of mixture. The force induced by the nanofluid is assumed in radial direction and is obtained by NavierStokes equation considering viscosity of nanofluid. The displacements of the structure are described by first order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The final equations are calculated by Hamilton's principle. Differential quadrature method (DQM) is utilized for presenting the instable fluid velocity. The influences of length to radius ratio of pipe, volume fraction, diameter and type of nanoparticles are shown on the instable fluid velocity. The outcomes are compared with other published articles where shows good accuracy. Numerical results indicate that with enhancing the volume fraction of nanoparticles, the instable fluid velocity is increased. In addition, the instable fluid velocity of SiO2water is higher than other types of nanoparticles assumed in this work.
0

122
128


Mohammad Hosein
Fakhar
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan, Iran
Iran
mhfakhar.un@gmail.com


Ahmad
Fakhar
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan, Iran
Iran
a_fakhar@iaukashan.ac.ir


Hamidreza
Tabatabaei
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan, Iran
Iran
tabatabaei_hamidreza@gmail.com


Hossein
NouriBidgoli
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan, Iran
Iran
h.nouri.b@yahoo.vom
Instable fluid velocity
Nanofluid
pipe
NavierStokes
Hamilton's principle
[[1] Paidoussis M.P., Li G.X., 1993, Pipes conveying fluid: a model dynamical problem, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 7: 137–204.##[2] Amabili M., 2008, Nonlinear Vibrations and Stability of Shells and Plates, Cambridge University Press, New York.##[3] Toorani M.H., Lakis A.A., 2001, Dynamic analysis of anisotropic cylindrical shells containing flowing fluid, Journal of Pressure Vessels and Technology Transection ASME, 123: 454–60.##[4] Zhang X.M., Liu G.R., Lam K.Y., 2001, Frequency analysis of cylindrical panels using a wave propagation approach, Applied Acoustics, 62: 527–543.##[5] Jayaraj K., Ganesan N., Chandramouli P., 2002, A semianalytical coupled finite element formulation for composite shells conveying fluids, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 258: 287–307.##[6] Zhang Y.L., Reese J.M., Gorman D.G., 2002, Initially tensioned orthotropic cylindrical shells conveying fluid: A vibration analysis, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 161: 53–70,.##[7] Kadoli R., Ganesan N., 2003و Free vibration and buckling analysis of composite cylindrical shells conveying hot fluid, Composite Structures, 60: 19–32.##[8] Wang L., Ni Q., 2006, A note on the stability and chaotic motions of a restrained pipe conveying fluid, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 296: 1079–1083.##[9] ModarresSadeghi Y., Païdoussis M.P., 2009, Nonlinear dynamics of extensible fluidconveying pipes, supported at both ends, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 25: 535543.##[10] Meng D., Guo H., Xu S., 2011, Nonlinear dynamic model of a fluidconveying pipe undergoing overall motions, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 35:, pp. 781796.##[11] Ni Q., Zhang Z.L., Wang L., 2011و Application of the differential transformation method to vibration analysis of pipes conveying fluid, Applied Mathematical and Computation, 217: 70287038.##[12] Dai H.L., Wang L., Qian Q., Gan J., 2012, Vibration analysis of threedimensional pipes conveying fluid with consideration of steady combined force by transfer matrix method, Applied Mathematical and Computation 219: 24532464.##[13] GayBalmaz F., Putkaradze V., 2015, On flexible tubes conveying fluid: geometric nonlinear theory, stability and dynamics, Journal of Nonlinear Science, 25: 889936.##[14] Zhang T., Ouyang H., Zhang Y.O., Lv B.L., 2016, Nonlinear dynamics of straight fluidconveying pipes with general boundary conditions and additional springs and masses, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 40: 78807900.##[15] Gu J., Tianqi M., Menglan, D., 2016, Influence of aspect ratio on the dynamic response of a fluidconveying pipe using the Timoshenko beam model, Ocean Engineering, 114: 185–191.##[16] Li B., Wang Zh., Jing L., 2018, Dynamic Response of Pipe Conveying Fluid with Lateral Moving Supports, Shock and Vibration, 24: ID 3295787.##[17] Bai Y., Xie W., Gao W., Xu W., 2018, Dynamic analysis of a cantilevered pipe conveying fluid with density variation, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 81: 638655.##[18] Hu Y.J., Zhu W., 2018, Vibration analysis of a fluidconveying curved pipe with an arbitrary undeformed configuration, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 64: 624642.##[19] Daneshmehr, A., Rajabpoor, A., Hadi, A., 2015, Size dependent free vibration analysis of nanoplates made of functionally graded materials based on nonlocal elasticity theory with high order theories, International Journal of Engineering Science, 95: 2335.##[20] Zamani Nejad, M., Hadi, A., 2016, Nonlocal analysis of free vibration of bidirectional functionally graded EulerBernoulli nanobeams, International Journal of Engineering Science, 105: 111.##[21] Zamani Nejad, M., Hadi, A., 2016, Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory for bending analysis of bidirectional functionally graded EulerBernoulli nanobeams, International Journal of Engineering Science, 106: 19.##[22] Zamani Nejadو M., Hadi A., Farajpour A., 2017, Consistent couplestress theory for free vibration analysis of EulerBernoulli nanobeams made of arbitrary bidirectional functionally graded materials, Structural Engineering and Mechanics 63(2): 161169.##[23] Zamani Nejad M., Jabbari M., Hadi A., 2017, A review of functionally graded thick cylindrical and conical shells, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanicsو 48(2): 357370.##[24] Hadi A., Zamani Nejad M., Hosseini M., 2018, Vibrations of threedimensionally graded nanobeams, International Journal of Engineering Science,128: 1223.##[25] Hadi A., Zamani Nejad M., Rastgoo A., Hosseini M., 2018, Buckling analysis of FGM EulerBernoulli nanobeams with 3Dvarying properties based on consistent couplestress theory, Steel and Composite Structures, 26(6): 663672.##[26] Zamani Nejad M., Hadi A., Omidvari A., Rastgoo A., 2018, Bending analysis of bidirectional functionally graded EulerBernoulli nanobeams using integral form of Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 67(4): 417425.##[27] Zarezadeh E., Hosseini V., Hadi A., 2019, Torsional vibration of functionally graded nanorod under magnetic field supported by a generalized torsional foundation based on nonlocal elasticity theory, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, 25: 116.##[28] Barati A., Hadi A., Zamani Nejad M., Noroozi R., 2020, On vibration of bidirectional functionally graded nanobeams under magnetic field, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, 23: 118.##[29] Dehshahri K., Zamani Nejad M., Ziaee S., Niknejad A., Hadi A., 2020, Free vibrations analysis of arbitrary threedimensionally FGM nanoplates, Advances in nano research, 8(2): 115134.##[30] Barati A., Adeli M.M., Hadi A., 2020, Static torsion of bidirectional functionally graded microtube based on the couple stress theory under magnetic field, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 12(02): 2050021.##[31] Noroozi R., Barati A., Kazemi A., Norouzi S., Hadi A., 2020, Torsional vibration analysis of bidirectional FG nanocone with arbitrary crosssection based on nonlocal strain gradient elasticity, Advances in nano research, 8(1): 1324.##[32] Brush, D.O., Almroth, B.O. 1975, Buckling of bars, plates and shells, McGrawHill, New York.##[33] Baohui, L., Hangshan, G., Yongshou, L., Zhufeng, Y., 2012, Free vibration analysis of micropipe conveying fluid by wave method, Results in Physics, 2: 104–109.##[34] Sheikhzadeh G.A., Teimouri H., Mahmoodi M., 2013, Numerical study of mixed convection of nanofluid in a concentric annulus with rotating inner cylinder, Trans. Phenomen. Nano Micro Scales 1: 2636.##[35] Bellman R., Casti J., 1971, Differential quadrature and longterm integration, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 34: 235–238.##[36] Eiamsaard S., Kiatkittipong K., Jedsadaratanachai W., 2015, Heat transfer enhancement of TiO2/water nanofluid in a heat exchanger tube equipped with overlapped dual twistedtapes, Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 18: 336350.##[37] Kefayati G.R., Hosseinizadeh S.F., Gorji M., Sajjadi H., 2011, Lattice Boltzmann simulation of natural convection in tall enclosures using water/SiO2 nanofluid, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 38: 798‒805.##[38] AbuNada E., 2009, Influences of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity of Al2O3water nanofluid on heat transfer enhancement in natural convection, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 30: 679690.##[39] Zeinali Heris S., Talaii E., Noie S.H., 2012, CuO/ Water Nanofluid Heat Transfer Through Triangular Ducts, Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 9, 2333.##[40] Qu, Y., Chen, Y., Long, X., Hua, H., Meng, G. 2013, Free and forced vibration analysis of uniform and stepped circular cylindrical shells using a domain decomposition method, Applied Acoustics, 74: 425–439.##]
1

A new approach based on state conversion to stability analysis and control design of switched nonlinear cascade systems
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76985.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.301457.501
1
In this paper, the problems of control and stabilization of switched nonlinear cascade systems is investigated. The so called simultaneous domination limitation (SDL) is introduced in previous works to assure the existence of a common quadratic Lyapunov function (CQLF) for switched nonlinear cascade systems. According to this idea, if all subsystems of a switched system satisfy the SDL, a CQLF can be constructed by employing the backstepping approach. The major shortcoming of the SDL is that this limitation cannot be satisfied for complicated switched nonlinear systems. Therefore, a CQLF cannot be constructed by employing the backstepping approach. Moreover, if SDL is satisfied, only stabilization problem can be solved. In this paper, a new approach based on state transformation is introduced to solve the stabilization and control problems of switched nonlinear cascade systems without any limitation. Several simulation and experimental studies are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
0

129
136


Hossein
Chehardoli
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ayatollah Boroujerdi University, Borujerd, Iran
Iran
h.chehardoli@abru.ac.ir


Mohammad
Eghtesad
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Iran
m.eghtesad@shirazu.ac.ir
Switched nonlinear cascade systems
Backstepping
SDL
Common quadratic Lyapunov function
Globally asymptotically stable
[[1] A. Van der Schaft, H. Schumacher, 1999, An Introduction to Hybrid Dynamical Systems, SpringerVerlag, London##[2] J. Lygeros, S. Sastry, C. Tomlin, 2012, Hybrid Systems: Foundations, advanced topics and applications, Springer Verlag,##[3] N. Emmanuel, V. Daniela, S. Ioannis, B. Luis, Leader–follower and leaderless consensus in networks of flexiblejoint manipulators, European Journal of Control, Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 249258, 9//, 2014.##[4] A. K. Usman , A. Jadbabaie, Collaborative scalargain estimators for potentially unstable social dynamics with limited communication, Automatica, Vol. 50, No. 7, pp. 19091914, 7//, 2014.##[5] H. Chehardoli, A. Ghasemi, Adaptive centralized/decentralized control and identification of 1D heterogeneous vehicular platoons based on constant time headway policy, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. 19, pp. 33763386, 2018.##[6] G. FerrariTrecate, E. Gallestey, P.Letizia, M. Spedicato, M.Morari, M. Antoine, Modeling and control of cogeneration power plants:A hybrid system approach, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 12, pp. 694705, 2004.##[7] C. J. Tomlin, G. J. Pappas, S. Sastry, Conflict resolution for air traffic management: A study in multiagent hybrid systems, IEEE Trans.Autom.Control, Vol. 43, pp. 509521, 1998.##[8] C. Guan, D. Sun, Z. Fei, C. Ren, Synchronization for switched neural networks via variable sampleddata control method, Neurocomputing, Vol. 311, pp. 325332, 2018.##[9] D. Liberzon, 2003, Switching in Systems and Control, Birkhauser, Boston##[10] P. S. Esfahani, J. K. Pieper, Robust model predictive control for switched linear systems, ISA transactions, 2018.##[11] M. Wang, J. Zhao, G. M. Dimirovski, Output tracking control of nonlinear switched cascade systems using a variable structure control method, International Journal of Control, Vol. 83, No. 2, pp. 394403, 2010.##[12] H. Lin, P. J. Antsaklis, Stability and stabilizability of switched linear systems: a survey of recent results, IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 308322, 2009.##[13] H. Chehardoli, M. Eghtesad, Robust adaptive control of switched nonlinear systems in strict feedback form with unknown time delay, IMA Journal of Mathematical Control and Information, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 761779, 2014.##[14] Y. Li, S. Tong, Adaptive neural networks prescribed performance control design for switched interconnected uncertain nonlinear systems, IEEE transactions on neural networks and learning systems, Vol. 29, No. 7, pp. 30593068, 2017.##[15] M. L. Chiang, L. C. Fu, Variable structure adaptive backstepping control for a class of unknown switched linear systems, in American Control Conference, Marriott Waterfront, Baltimore, MD, USA, 2010, pp. 24762481.##[16] B. Niu, J. Zhao, Tracking control for outputconstrained nonlinear switched systems with a barrier Lyapunov function, International Journal of Systems Science, Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 978–985, 2013.##[17] A. Heydari, S. N. Balakrishnan, Optimal Switching and Control of Nonlinear Switching Systems Using Approximate Dynamic Programming, IEEE Transaction on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 11061117, 2014.##[18] G. Zhai, H. Lin, Y. Kim, L2 gain analysis for switched systems with continuoustime and descrete time subsystems, Internatinal Journal of Control, Vol. 78, pp. 1198–1205, 2005.##[19] M.S. Alwan, X. Liu, On stability of linear and weakly nonlinear switched systems with time delay., J. of Math. Comput. Model., Vol. 8, pp. 1–11, 2008.##[20] H. Chehardoli, M. R. Homaeinezhad, Thirdorder safe consensus of heterogeneous vehicular platoons with MPF network topology: constant time headway strategy, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Vol. 232, No. 10, pp. 1402–1413, 2017.##[21] Y. Li, S. Tong, Fuzzy adaptive control design strategy of nonlinear switched largescale systems, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, Vol. 48, No. 12, pp. 22092218, 2017.##[22] R. T. Andrew, S. Anantharaman, S. Antonino, Stability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems: A survey, Automatica, Vol. 50, No. 10, pp. 24352456, 10//, 2014.##[23] H. Chehardoli, M. R. Homaienezhad, A new virtual leaderfollowing consensus protocol to internal and string stability analysis of longitudinal platoon of vehicles with generic network topology under communication and parasitic delays, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 345356, 2017.##[24] J. P. Hespanha, Uniform stabilityof switched linear systems: Extensions of Lasalle’s invariance principle, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 470–482, 2004.##[25] L. Long, J. Zhao, H_{infty } Control of Switched Nonlinear Systems in p Normal Form Using Multiple Lyapunov Functions, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 57, No. 5, pp. 1285  1291, 2012.##[26] Z. Fei, S. Shi, Z. Wang, L. J. I. T. o. A. C. Wu, Quasitimedependent output control for discretetime switched system with modedependent average dwell time, Vol. 63, No. 8, pp. 26472653, 2018.##[27] S. Zhao, G. M. Dimirovski, R. Ma, Robust H∞ Control for Non‐Minimum Phase Switched Cascade Systems with Time Delay, Asian Journal of Control, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 15901599, 2015.##[28] L. Qiugang, L. Zhang, H.R. Karimi, S. Yang, Hα control for asynchronously switched linear parametervarying systems with modedependent average dwell time, IET journal of Control Theory & Applications, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 673683, 2013.##[29] S. D. Grace, R. F. André, C. G. José, Suboptimal switching control consistency analysis for discretetime switched linear systems, European Journal of Control, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 214219, 5//, 2013.##[30] H. Chehardoli, M. R. Homaeinezhad, Switching decentralized control of a platoon of vehicles with timevarying heterogeneous delay: A safe and dense spacing policy, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Vol. 232, No. 8, pp. 10361046, 2018.##[31] J. L. Wu, Stabilizing controllers design for switched nonlinear systems in strictfeedback form, Automatica, Vol. 45, pp. 10921096, 2009.##[32] R. Ma, J. Zhao, Backstepping design for global stabilization of switched nonlinear systems in lower triangular form under arbitrary switchings, Automatica, Vol. 46, pp. 1819–1823, 2010.##[33] H. Chehardoli, A. Ghasemi, Adaptive robust output tracking control of uncertain nonlinear cascade systems with disturbance and multiple uknown time‐varying delays, Asian Journal of Control, Vol. 19, No. 9, pp. 2009–2016, 2017.##[34] B. Niu, J. Zhao, Brief Paper  Output tracking control for a class of switched nonlinear systems with partial state constraints, Control Theory & Applications, IET, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 623631, 2013.##[35] A. Haghpanah, M. Eghtasad, M. R. Hematiyan, A. Khayatian, Adaptive backstepping stabilization of uncertain switched nonlinear systems in parametric strictfeedback form, in Proceeding of, 10271032.##[36] R. Ma, J. Zhao, G. M. Dimirovski, Backstepping design for global robust stabilisation of switched nonlinear systems in lower triangular form, International Journal of Systems Science, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 615624, 2013.##[37] H. K. Khalil, Noninear systems, PrenticeHall, New Jersey, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 5.1, 1996.##[38] M. Moallem, V. A. Tabrizi, Tracking control of an antagonistic shape memory alloy actuator pair, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 184190, 2009. ##]
1

A new technique for bearing fault detection in the timefrequency domain
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76987.html
10.22059/jcamech.2019.282042.399
1
This paper presents a new Fast Kurtogram Method in the timefrequency domain using novel types of statistical features instead of the kurtosis. For this study, the problem of four classes for Bearing Fault Detection is investigated using various statistical features. This research is conducted in four stages. At first, the stability of each feature for each fault mode is investigated. Then, resistance to load changes as well as failure growth is studied. In the end, the resolution and fault detection for each feature using comparison with a determined pattern and the coherence rate is calculated. From the above results, the best feature that is both resistant and repeatable to different variations, as well as having suitable accuracy of detection and resolution, is selected. It is found that kurtosis feature is not in a good condition in comparison with other statistical features such as harmmean and median. This approach increases the fault identification accuracy significantly.
0

137
143


Behrooz
Attaran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
Iran
battaran@phdstu.scu.ac.ir


Afshin
Ghanbarzadeh
Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
Iran
ghanbarzadeh.a@scu.ac.ir


Shapour
Moradi
Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
Iran
moradis@scu.ac.ir
Fast Kurtogram
Bearing fault detection
Statistical features
TimeFrequency Domain
[[1] H. Yang, J. Mathew, L. Ma, Fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings using basis pursuit, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 341356, 2005/03/01/, 2005.##[2] M. Liang, I. Soltani Bozchalooi, An energy operator approach to joint application of amplitude and frequencydemodulations for bearing fault detection, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 14731494, 2010/07/01/, 2010.##[3] W. Su, F. Wang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhang, Z. Guo, Rolling element bearing faults diagnosis based on optimal Morlet wavelet filter and autocorrelation enhancement, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 14581472, 2010/07/01/, 2010.##[4] D. Dou, J. Yang, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, A rulebased intelligent method for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, KnowledgeBased Systems, Vol. 36, pp. 18, 2012/12/01/, 2012.##[5] B. Li, P.y. Liu, R.x. Hu, S.s. Mi, J.p. Fu, Fuzzy lattice classifier and its application to bearing fault diagnosis, Applied Soft Computing, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 17081719, 2012/06/01/, 2012.##[6] D. Wang, P. W. Tse, K. L. Tsui, An enhanced Kurtogram method for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 176199, 2013/02/01/, 2013.##[7] H. Xu, G. Chen, An intelligent fault identification method of rolling bearings based on LSSVM optimized by improved PSO, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 167175, 2013/02/01/, 2013.##[8] H. AlBugharbee, I. Trendafilova, A fault diagnosis methodology for rolling element bearings based on advanced signal pretreatment and autoregressive modelling, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 369, pp. 246265, 2016/05/12/, 2016.##[9] P. Baraldi, F. Cannarile, F. Di Maio, E. Zio, Hierarchical knearest neighbours classification and binary differential evolution for fault diagnostics of automotive bearings operating under variable conditions, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 56, pp. 113, 2016/11/01/, 2016.##[10] V. Vakharia, V. K. Gupta, P. K. Kankar, Bearing Fault Diagnosis Using Feature Ranking Methods and Fault Identification Algorithms, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 144, pp. 343350, 2016/01/01/, 2016.##[11] J. Singh, A. K. Darpe, S. P. Singh, Rolling element bearing fault diagnosis based on OverComplete rational dilation wavelet transform and autocorrelation of analytic energy operator, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 100, pp. 662693, 2018/02/01/, 2018.##[12] M. Ö. Yaylı, Stability analysis of gradient elastic microbeams with arbitrary boundary conditions, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 29, No. 8, pp. 33733380, 2015/08/01, 2015.##[13] M. Özgür Yayli, An efficient solution method for the longitudinal vibration of nanorods with arbitrary boundary conditions via a hardening nonlocal approach, Journal of Vibration and Control, Vol. 24, No. 11, pp. 22302246, 2018/06/01, 2016.##[14] M. Ö. Yayli, Buckling analysis of a microbeam embedded in an elastic medium with deformable boundary conditions, Micro & Nano Letters, Vol. 11, No. 11, pp. 741745, 2016.##[15] M. Ö. Yayli, On the torsional vibrations of restrained nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 40, No. 9, pp. 419, 2018/08/14, 2018.##[16] M. Ö. Yayli, Torsional vibrations of restrained nanotubes using modified couple stress theory, Microsystem Technologies, Vol. 24, No. 8, pp. 34253435, 2018/08/01, 2018.##[17] A. Moradi, H. Makvandi, I. B. Salehpoor, Multi objective optimization of the vibration analysis of composite natural gas pipelines in nonlinear thermal and humidity environment under nonuniform magnetic field, JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL APPLIED MECHANICS, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 5364, 2017.##[18] P. Alimouri, S. Moradi, R. Chinipardaz, UPDATING FINITE ELEMENT MODEL USING FREQUENCY DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD AND BEES ALGORITHM, THE JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL APPLIED MECHANICS, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 7588, 2017. English##[19] M. Goodarzi, M. N. Bahrami, V. Tavaf, Refined plate theory for free vibration analysis of FG nanoplates using the nonlocal continuum plate model, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 123136, 2017.##[20] A. Zargaripoor, A. Bahrami, M. Nikkhah bahrami, Free vibration and buckling analysis of thirdorder shear deformation plate theory using exact wave propagation approach, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 102124, 06/01, 2018. en##[21] A. Zargaripoor, M. Nikkhah bahrami, A wavebased computational method for free vibration and buckling analysis of rectangular Reddy nanoplates, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, 05/23, 2018. en##[22] M. Zarchi, B. Attaran, Performance improvement of an active vibration absorber subsystem for an aircraft model using a bees algorithm based on multiobjective intelligent optimization, Engineering Optimization, Vol. 49, No. 11, pp. 19051921, 2017/11/02, 2017.##[23] M. Zarchi, B. Attaran, Improved design of an active landing gear for a passenger aircraft using multiobjective optimization technique, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Vol. 59, No. 5, pp. 18131833, 2019/05/01, 2019.##[24] S. Patil, V. Phalle, Fault Detection of Antifriction Bearing using Ensemble Machine Learning Methods, International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 11, pp. 19721981, 2018. En##[25] M. Heidari, Fault Detection of Bearings Using a Rulebased Classifier Ensemble and Genetic Algorithm, International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 30, pp. 604609, 04/01, 2017.##[26] X. Li, L. Han, H. Xu, Y. Yang, H. Xiao, Rolling bearing fault analysis by interpolating windowed DFT algorithm, International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 32, pp. 121126, 01/01, 2019.##[27] A. Moshrefzadeh, A. Fasana, The Autogram: An effective approach for selecting the optimal demodulation band in rolling element bearings diagnosis, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 105, pp. 294318, 2018/05/15/, 2018.##[28] J. Antoni, The spectral kurtosis of nonstationary signals: Formalisation, some properties, and application, in Proceeding of, 11671170.##[29] Diagnostic Techniques, Vibration‐based Condition Monitoring, pp. 167227, 2010/12/19, 2010.##[30] J. Antoni, R. B. Randall, The spectral kurtosis: application to the vibratory surveillance and diagnostics of rotating machines, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 308331, 2006/02/01/, 2006.##[31] J. Antoni, Fast computation of the kurtogram for the detection of transient faults, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 108124, 2007/01/01/, 2007. ##]
1

An Analytical Solution for Temperature Distribution and Thermal Strain of FGM Cylinders with Varying Thickness and TemperatureDependent Properties Using Perturbation Technique
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76162.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.294821.464
1
This research presents temperature distribution and thermal strain of functionally graded material cylinders with varying thickness and temperaturedependency properties that are subjected to heat fluxes in their inner and outer layers. The heterogeneous distribution of properties is modeled as a power function. Using firstorder temperature theory and the energy method, governing equations are extracted. The system of governing differential equations is a system of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients, which are solved by using the analytical method of the matched asymptotic expansion of the perturbations technique. Results obtained from temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal strain for different heterogeneous constants and temperaturedependency properties are discussed. They show that heterogeneity has a significant impact on the temperature field and thermal strain inside functionally graded cylinders. Moreover, it is observed that heterogeneity has no impact on the direction of heat flux vector inside the body; however, any changes in heterogeneity would change the magnitude of heat flux. The results obtained from the analytical method were compared with those of previous studies and FEM, which showed good agreement.
0

144
156


Mohammad
Parhizkar Yaghoobi
Faculty of Mechanical And Mechatronics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Semnan,Iran
Iran
m.parhizkaryaghoobi@gmail.com


Mehdi
Ghannad
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran,
Iran
ghannad.mehdi@gmail.com
analytical solution
Temperature distribution
Thermal Strain
Cylinders with Varying Thickness
TemperatureDependent Properties
Functionally graded Material (FGM)
FirstOrder Temperature Theory (FTT)
Perturbation Technique
[[1] Zhao X., Zhang Z.M., Zhang B.H., 2014, Research on rolling–extrusion forming of variable wall thickness cylinder parts, Materials Research Innovations 18(2): S2940S2945.##[2] Grigorenko A.Y., Müller W.H., Grigorenko Y.M., Vlaikov G.G., 2016, Recent Developments in Anisotropic Heterogeneous Shell Theory: Applications of Refined and Threedimensional Theory—Volume IIB, Springer.##[3] Kasaeian A., Vatan S.N., Daneshmand S., 2011, FGM materials and finding an appropriate model for the thermal conductivity, Procedia engineering (14): 31993204.##[4] Li W., Han B., Research and Application of Functionally Gradient Materials, in: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing, 022065.##[5] Dai HL., Rao YN., Dai T., 2016, A review of recent researches on FGM cylindrical structures under coupled physical interactions, 2000–2015, Composite Structures 152: 199225.##[6] Zimmerman R.W., Lutz M.P., 1999, Thermal stresses and thermal expansion in a uniformly heated functionally graded cylinder, Journal of Thermal Stresses 22(2): 177188.##[7] Awaji H., Sivakumar R., 2001, Temperature and Stress Distributions in a Hollow Cylinder of Functionally Graded Material: The Case of Temperature‐Independent Material Properties, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 84(5): 10591065.##[8] ElNaggar A., AbdAlla A., Fahmy M., Ahmed S., 2002, Thermal stresses in a rotating nonhomogeneous orthotropic hollow cylinder, Heat and Mass Transfer 39(1): 4146.##[9] Shao Z., 2005, Mechanical and thermal stresses of a functionally graded circular hollow cylinder with finite length, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82(3): 155163.##[10] Ruhi M., Angoshtari A., Naghdabadi R., 2005, Thermoelastic analysis of thickwalled finitelength cylinders of functionally graded materials, Journal of Thermal Stresses 28(4): 391408.##[11] Ootao Y., Tanigawa Y., 2006, Transient thermoelastic analysis for a functionally graded hollow cylinder, Journal of Thermal Stresses 29(11): 10311046.##[12] Shao Z., Ma G., 2008, Thermomechanical stresses in functionally graded circular hollow cylinder with linearly increasing boundary temperature, Composite Structures 83(3): 259265.##[13] Bahtui A., Eslami M., 2007, Coupled thermoelasticity of functionally graded cylindrical shells, Mechanics research communications 34(1): 118.##[14] Akbari Alashti R., Khorsand M., Tarahhomi M., 2012, Asymmetric thermoelastic analysis of long cylindrical shells of functionally graded materials by differential quadrature method, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 226(5): 11331147.##[15] Tokovyy Y.V., Ma C.C., 2008, Analysis of 2D nonaxisymmetric elasticity and thermoelasticity problems for radially inhomogeneous hollow cylinders, Journal of Engineering Mathematics 61(24): 171184.##[16] Peng X., Li X., 2010, Thermoelastic analysis of a cylindrical vessel of functionally graded materials, International journal of pressure vessels and piping 87(5): 203210.##[17] Chang W.J., Lee H.L., Yang Y.C., 2011, Estimation of heat flux and thermal stresses in functionally graded hollow circular cylinders, Journal of Thermal Stresses 34(7): 740755.##[18] Aziz A., Torabi M., 2013, Thermal stresses in a hollow cylinder with convective boundary conditions on the inside and outside surfaces, Journal of Thermal Stresses 36(10): 10961111.##[19] Xin L., Dui G., Yang S., Zhou D., 2015, Solutions for behavior of a functionally graded thickwalled tube subjected to mechanical and thermal loads, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 98: 7079.##[20] M. Ghannad, M. Parhizkar Yaghoobi, 2015, A thermoelasticity solution for thick cylinders subjected to thermomechanical loads under various boundary conditions, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology 8(4): 112.##[21] M. Ghannad, M. Parhizkar Yaghoobi, 2017, 2D thermo elastic behavior of a FG cylinder under thermomechanical loads using a first order temperature theory, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 149: 7592.##[22] Daneshmehr A., Rajabpoor A., Hadi A., 2015, Size dependent free vibration analysis of nanoplates made of functionally graded materials based on nonlocal elasticity theory with high order theories, International Journal of Engineering Science 95: 2335.##[23] Zamani Nejad M., Hadi A., 2016, Nonlocal analysis of free vibration of bidirectional functionally graded Euler–Bernoulli nanobeams, International Journal of Engineering Science 105: 111.##[24] Zamani Nejad M., Hadi A., 2016, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory for bending analysis of bidirectional functionally graded Euler–Bernoulli nanobeams, International Journal of Engineering Science 106: 19.##[25] Zamani Nejad M., Hadi A., Rastgoo A., 2016, Buckling analysis of arbitrary twodirectional functionally graded Euler–Bernoulli nanobeams based on nonlocal elasticity theory, International Journal of Engineering Science 103: 110.##[26] Zamani Nejad M., Jabbari M., Hadi A., 2017, A review of functionally graded thick cylindrical and conical shells, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics 48(2): 357370.##[27] Khoshgoftar M., Ghorbanpour Arani A., Arefi M., 2009, Thermoelastic analysis of a thick walled cylinder made of functionally graded piezoelectric material, Smart Materials and Structures 18(11): 115007.##[28] Ghorbanpour A., Loghman A., Abdollahitaheri A., Atabakhshian V., 2011, Electrothermomechanical behavior of a radially polarized rotating functionally graded piezoelectric cylinder, Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures 6(6): 869882.##[29] Parhizkar Yaghoobi M., Ghaffari I., Ghannad M., 2018, Stress and active control analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric material cylinder and disk under electrothermomechanical loading, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 29(5) 924937.##[30] Atrian A., Fesharaki J.J., Nourbakhsh S., 2015, Thermoelectromechanical behavior of functionally graded piezoelectric hollow cylinder under nonaxisymmetric loads, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 36(7): 939954.##[31] Loghman A., Nasr M., Arefi M., 2017, Nonsymmetric thermomechanical analysis of a functionally graded cylinder subjected to mechanical, thermal, and magnetic loads, Journal of Thermal Stresses 40(6): 765782.##[32] Meshkini M., Firoozbakhsh K., Jabbari M., SelkGhafari A., 2017, Asymmetric mechanical and thermal stresses in 2DFGPPMs hollow cylinder, Journal of Thermal Stresses, 40(4): 448469.##[33] Zamani Nejad M., Hadi A., Farajpour A., 2017, Consistent couplestress theory for free vibration analysis of EulerBernoulli nanobeams made of arbitrary bidirectional functionally graded materials, Structural Engineering and Mechanics 63(2): 161169.##[34] Hadi A., Zamani Nejad M., Hosseini M., 2018, Vibrations of threedimensionally graded nanobeams, International Journal of Engineering Science 128: 1223.##[35] Hadi A., Zamani Nejad M., Rastgoo A., Hosseini M., 2018, Buckling analysis of FGM EulerBernoulli nanobeams with 3Dvarying properties based on consistent couplestress theory, Steel and Composite Structures 26(6): 663672.##[36] Zamani Nejad M., Hadi A., Omidvari A., Rastgoo A., 2018, Bending analysis of bidirectional functionally graded EulerBernoulli nanobeams using integral form of Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory, Structural Engineering and Mechanics 67(4): 417425.##[37] Ghaffari I., Parhizkar Yaghoobi M., Ghannad M., 2018, Complete mechanical behavior analysis of FG Nano Beam under nonuniform loading using nonlocal theory, Materials Research Express 5(1): 015016.##[38] Zarezadeh E., Hosseini V., Hadi A., 2019, Torsional vibration of functionally graded nanorod under magnetic field supported by a generalized torsional foundation based on nonlocal elasticity theory, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines: 116.##[39] Barati A., Adeli M.M., Hadi A., 2020, Static torsion of bidirectional functionally graded microtube based on the couple stress theory under magnetic field, International Journal of Applied Mechanics 12(02): 2050021.##[40] Dehshahri K., Zamani Nejad M., Ziaee S., Niknejad A., Hadi A., 2020, Free vibrations analysis of arbitrary threedimensionally FGM nanoplates, Advances in nano research 8(2): 115134.##[41] Barati A., Hadi A., Zamani Nejad M., Noroozi R., 2020, On vibration of bidirectional functionally graded nanobeams under magnetic field, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines: 118.##[42] Noroozi R., Barati A., Kazemi A., Norouzi S., Hadi A., 2020, Torsional vibration analysis of bidirectional FG nanocone with arbitrary crosssection based on nonlocal strain gradient elasticity, Advances in nano research 8(1): 1324.##[43] Ghannad M., Rahimi G.H., Zamani Nejad M., 2013, Elastic analysis of pressurized thick cylindrical shells with variable thickness made of functionally graded materials, Composites Part B: Engineering 45(1): 388396.##[44] Jabbari M., Zamani Nejad M., 2018, Mechanical and thermal stresses in radially functionally graded hollow cylinders with variable thickness due to symmetric loads, Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering: 114.##[45] Zamani Nejad M., Jabbari M., Ghannad M., 2017, A general disk form formulation for thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded thick shells of revolution with arbitrary curvature and variable thickness, Acta Mechanica 228(1): 215231.##[46] Mehditabar A., Rahimi G.H., Fard K.M., 2018, Thermoelastic Analysis of Rotating Functionally Graded Truncated Conical Shell by the Methods of Polynomial Based Differential Quadrature and Fourier ExpansionBased Differential Quadrature, Mathematical Problems in Engineering 2018.##[47] Wang Y., Liu D., Wang Q., Zhou J., 2018, Thermoelastic interaction in functionally graded thick hollow cylinder with temperaturedependent properties, Journal of Thermal Stresses 41(4): 399417.##[48] Benjeddou A., Andrianarison O., 2005, A thermopiezoelectric mixed variational theorem for smart multilayered composites, Computers & Structures 83(1516): 12661276.##[49] Mahboubi Nasrekani F., Eipakchi H., 2015, Nonlinear Analysis of Cylindrical Shells with Varying Thickness and Moderately Large Deformation under Nonuniform Compressive Pressure Using the FirstOrder Shear Deformation Theory, Journal of Engineering Mechanics 141(5): 04014153.##[50] Nayfeh A.H., 2011, Introduction to perturbation techniques, John Wiley & Sons.##[51] Omidi Bidgoli M., Arefi M., Loghman A., 2018, Thermoelastic behaviour of FGM rotating cylinder resting on friction bed subjected to a thermal gradient and an external torque, Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering: 19.##[52] Omidi Bidgoli M., Loghman A., Arefi M., 2019, The Effect of Grading Index on Twodimensional Stress and Strain Distribution of FG Rotating Cylinder Resting on a Friction Bed Under Thermomechanical Loading, Journal of Stress Analysis 3(2): 7582.##[53] Omidi Bidgoli M., Loghman A., Arefi M., 2019, ThreeDimensional ThermoElastic Analysis of a Rotating Cylindrical Functionally Graded Shell Subjected to Mechanical and Thermal Loads Based on the FSDT Formulation, Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics 60(5) 899907.##]
1

An Enhanced Finite Element method for Two Dimensional Linear Viscoelasticity using Complex Fourier Elements
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_75385.html
10.22059/jcamech.2018.264649.318
1
In this paper, the finite element analysis of twodimensional linear viscoelastic problems is performed using quadrilateral complex Fourier elements and, the results are compared with those obtained by quadrilateral classic Lagrange elements. Complex Fourier shape functions contain a shape parameter which is a constant unknown parameter adopted to enhance approximation’s accuracy. Since the isoparametric formulation utilized in the finite element code, based on the experience of authors, it is proposed that a suitable shape parameter for each problem is adopted based on an acceptable approximation of the problem’s geometry by a complex Fourier element. Several numerical examples solved, and the results showed that the finite element solutions using complex Fourier elements have excellent agreement with analytical solutions, even though noticeable fewer elements than classic Lagrange elements are employed. Furthermore, the runtimes of the executions of the developed finite element code to obtain accurate results, in the same personal computer, using classic Lagrange and complex Fourier elements compared. Runtimes indicate that in the finite element analysis of viscoelastic problems, complex Fourier elements reduce computational cost efficiently in comparison to their classic counterpart.
0

157
169


Seyed Ali
Ghazi Mirsaeed
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.
Iran
alighazi@shahroodut.ac.ir


Vahidreza
Kalatjari
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.
Iran
v_kalatjari@shahroodut.ac.ir
Viscoelasticity
finite element method
Complex Fourier shape functions
Shape parameters
Complex Fourier Lagrange Elements
[[1] Y. Z. Wang, T. J. Tsai, Static and dynamic analysis of a viscoelastic plate by the finite element method, Applied Acoustics, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 7794, 1988/01/01/, 1988.##[2] A. Y. Aköz, F. Kadıoğlu, G. Tekin, Quasistatic and dynamic analysis of viscoelastic plates, Mechanics of TimeDependent Materials, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 483503, 2015.##[3] W. Flügge, 2013, Viscoelasticity, Springer Berlin Heidelberg,##[4] R. Christensen, 2012, Theory of Viscoelasticity: An Introduction, Elsevier Science,##[5] H. F. Brinson, L. C. Brinson, 2015, Polymer Engineering Science and Viscoelasticity: An Introduction, Springer US,##[6] D. GutierrezLemini, 2014, Engineering viscoelasticity, Springer,##[7] N. W. Tschoegl, 2012, The phenomenological theory of linear viscoelastic behavior: an introduction, Springer Science & Business Media,##[8] J. Wang, B. Birgisson, A time domain boundary element method for modeling the quasistatic viscoelastic behavior of asphalt pavements, Engineering analysis with boundary elements, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 226240, 2007.##[9] Q. Xu, M. Rahman, Finite element analyses of layered visco‐elastic system under vertical circular loading, International journal for numerical and analytical methods in geomechanics, Vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 897913, 2008.##[10] G. Ghazlan, S. Caperaa, C. Petit, An incremental formulation for the linear analysis of thin viscoelastic structures using generalized variables, International journal for numerical methods in engineering, Vol. 38, No. 19, pp. 33153333, 1995.##[11] J. Sorvari, J. Hämäläinen, Time integration in linear viscoelasticity—a comparative study, Mechanics of TimeDependent Materials, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 307328, 2010.##[12] I. P. King, On the finite element analysis of twodimensional problems with time dependent properties, Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, USA, 1965.##[13] M. Zocher, S. Groves, D. H. Allen, A three‐dimensional finite element formulation for thermoviscoelastic orthotropic media, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 40, No. 12, pp. 22672288, 1997.##[14] N. Khaji, S. H. Javaran, New complex Fourier shape functions for the analysis of twodimensional potential problems using boundary element method, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 260272, 2013.##[15] S. HamzeheiJavaran, Approximation of the state variables of Navier’s differential equation in transient dynamic problems using finite element method based on complex Fourier shape functions, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, pp. 120, 2018.##[16] M. A. Zocher, A thermoviscoelastic finite element formulation for the analysis of composites, Ph.D. Thesis, Texas A&M University, USA, 1995.##[17] M. J. Powell, Radial basis functions in 1990, Adv. Numer. Anal., Vol. 2, pp. 105210, 1992.##[18] J. Wang, G. Liu, A point interpolation meshless method based on radial basis functions, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 54, No. 11, pp. 16231648, 2002.##[19] J. Wang, G. Liu, On the optimal shape parameters of radial basis functions used for 2D meshless methods, Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering, Vol. 191, No. 2324, pp. 26112630, 2002.##[20] M. Golberg, C. Chen, H. Bowman, Some recent results and proposals for the use of radial basis functions in the BEM, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 285296, 1999.##[21] E. J. Kansa, Multiquadrics—A scattered data approximation scheme with applications to computational fluiddynamics—I surface approximations and partial derivative estimates, Computers & Mathematics with applications, Vol. 19, No. 89, pp. 127145, 1990.##[22] E. J. Kansa, Multiquadrics—A scattered data approximation scheme with applications to computational fluiddynamics—II solutions to parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic partial differential equations, Computers & mathematics with applications, Vol. 19, No. 89, pp. 147161, 1990.##[23] R. Franke, Scattered data interpolation: tests of some methods, Mathematics of computation, Vol. 38, No. 157, pp. 181200, 1982.##[24] S. Rippa, An algorithm for selecting a good value for the parameter c in radial basis function interpolation, Advances in Computational Mathematics, Vol. 11, No. 23, pp. 193210, 1999.##[25] R. E. Carlson, T. A. Foley, The parameter R2 in multiquadric interpolation, Computers & Mathematics with Applications, Vol. 21, No. 9, pp. 2942, 1991.##[26] M. Golberg, C. Chen, S. Karur, Improved multiquadric approximation for partial differential equations, Engineering Analysis with boundary elements, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 917, 1996.##[27] D. L. Logan, 2011, A first course in the finite element method, Cengage Learning,##[28] J. N. Reddy, 2005, An introduction to the finite element method, McGrawHill Education, USA, Thirded.##[29] O. C. Zienkiewicz, 1971, The Finite Element Method in Engineering Science, McGrawHill Book Co Inc. London, UK##[30] M. H. Sadd, 2009, Elasticity: theory, applications, and numerics, Academic Press,##[31] D. S. Simulia, ABAQUS CAE Theories Manual, ABAQUS Inc., 2014.##[32] J. Barlow, G. A. O. Davis, Selected FE benchmarks in structural and thermal analysis, Test No. LE1, NAFEMS Report FEBSTA, pp. 1986.##[33] S. Timoshenko, J. N. Goodier, 1970, Theory of Elasticity, McGrawHill Book Co. Inc, New York, USA., Thirded.##]
1

A New Method for Assessment of Engineering Drawing Answer Scripts Using Fuzzy Logic
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_76124.html
10.22059/jcamech.2019.265225.325
1
Popular method for assessment of final exam answer scripts in university and among the engineering drawing answer scripts based on absolute true or false judgment and assigning a single number or letter to answer of each problem cannot be so fair. To obtain a fair assessment method, we considered “imagination”, “accuracy”, “drawing” and “innovation” that are objectives of engineering drawing course to be separately assessed for each problem. Flexibility and linguistic properties of fuzzy logic made us use it as the basis of our method. In addition, fuzzy variables and membership functions are easily linguistic explainable, and adjustable to different conditions. “Answering time” was added as a factor with only a positive effect on the final grade. Between these five factors, imagination has special importance because it supports one of seven human intelligences which is spatial ability Finally, however we applied the proposed method to engineering drawing course, it can be applied to other courses with considering their properties.
0

170
183


Hamid
Haghshenas Gorgani
Engineering Graphics Center, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
h_haghshenas@sharif.edu


Alireza
Jahantigh Pak
Head of engineering graphics center, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
jahantigh@sharif.edu
FAIR ASSESSMENT
ANSWER SCRIPT
ENGINEERING DRAWING
Fuzzy
[[1] H. H. Gorgani, Improvements in Teaching Projection Theory Using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 100, No. 1, pp. 3742, 2016.##[2] M. Murthy, K. M. Babu, P. M. Jebaraj, L. R. Maddinapudi, V. Sunkari, D. V. Reddy, Augmented Reality as a tool for teaching a course on Elements of Engineering Drawing, Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, pp. 295297, 2015.##[3] H. H. Gorgani, I. M. S. Neyestanaki, A. J. Pak, Solid Reconstruction from Two Orthographic Views Using Extrusion and Comparative Projections, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 7, pp. 19381945, 2017.##[4] H. H. Gorgani, A. J. Pak, A Genetic Algorithm based Optimization Method in 3D Solid Reconstruction from 2D MultiView Engineering Drawings, Computational Applied Mechanics, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 10, 2018, 2018.##[5] S. Olkun, Making connections: Improving spatial abilities with engineering drawing activities, International Journal of Mathematics Teaching and Learning, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 110, 2003.##[6] Z. Zuo, K. Feng, B. Chen, The modern education mode for engineering drawing, JGG, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 121128, 2003.##[7] X. Yang, T. Zhang, Q. Jiang, Research and Practice of ProjectBased Teaching and Examination Methods on Engineering Drawing for Excellent Class, in Proceeding of, Citeseer, pp.##[8] M. G. Violante, E. Vezzetti, Design of web‐based interactive 3D concept maps: A preliminary study for an engineering drawing course, Computer Applications in Engineering Education, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 403411, 2015.##[9] M. Ismail, H. Othman, M. Amiruddin, A. Ariffin, The use of animation video in teaching to enhance the imagination and visualization of student in engineering drawing, in Proceeding of, IOP Publishing, pp. 012023.##[10] L. Zadeh, Inform, Control, Vol. 8, pp. 338353, 1965.##[11] D. Chang, C. Sun, Fuzzy assessment of learning performance of junior high school students, in Proceeding of, 110.##[12] T. Chiang, C. Lin, Application of fuzzy theory to teaching assessment, in Proceeding of, 9297.##[13] R. Biswas, An application of fuzzy sets in students' evaluation, Fuzzy sets and systems, Vol. 74, No. 2, pp. 187194, 1995.##[14] J. R. Echauz, G. J. Vachtsevanos, Fuzzy grading system, IEEE Transactions on Education, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 158165, 1995.##[15] C.K. Law, Using fuzzy numbers in educational grading system, Fuzzy sets and systems, Vol. 83, No. 3, pp. 311323, 1996.##[16] C. Cheng, K. Yang, Using fuzzy sets in education grading system, Journal of Chinese Fuzzy Systems Association, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 8189, 1998.##[17] E. Wilson, C. L. Karr, L. Freeman, Flexible, adaptive, automatic fuzzybased grade assigning system, in Proceeding of, IEEE, pp. 334338.##[18] S.M. Chen, C.H. Lee, New methods for students' evaluation using fuzzy sets, Fuzzy sets and systems, Vol. 104, No. 2, pp. 209218, 1999.##[19] J. Ma, D. Zhou, Fuzzy set approach to the assessment of studentcentered learning, IEEE Transactions on Education, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 237241, 2000.##[20] S. Weon, J. Kim, Learning achievement evaluation strategy using fuzzy membership function, in Proceeding of, IEEE, pp. T3A19.##[21] S.M. Bai, S.M. Chen, Automatically constructing concept maps based on fuzzy rules for adapting learning systems, Expert systems with Applications, Vol. 35, No. 12, pp. 4149, 2008.##[22] S.M. Bai, S.M. Chen, Automatically constructing grade membership functions of fuzzy rules for students’ evaluation, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 14081414, 2008.##[23] S.M. Bai, S.M. Chen, Evaluating students’ learning achievement using fuzzy membership functions and fuzzy rules, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 399410, 2008.##[24] H.Y. Wang, S.M. Chen, Evaluating students' answerscripts using fuzzy numbers associated with degrees of confidence, IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 403415, 2008.##[25] T.K. Li, C.M. Chen, A new method for students' learning achievement evaluation by automatically generating the weights of attributes with fuzzy reasoning capability, in Proceeding of, IEEE, pp. 28342839.##[26] E. H. Mamdani, Application of fuzzy algorithms for control of simple dynamic plant, in Proceeding of, IET, pp. 15851588.##[27] I. Saleh, S.i. Kim, A fuzzy system for evaluating students’ learning achievement, Expert systems with Applications, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 62366243, 2009.##[28] G. Gokmen, T. Ç. Akinci, M. Tektaş, N. Onat, G. Kocyigit, N. Tektaş, Evaluation of student performance in laboratory applications using fuzzy logic, ProcediaSocial and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 902909, 2010.##[29] S. Prokhorov, I. Kulikovskikh, Fuzzy learning performance assessment based on decision making under internal uncertainty, in Proceeding of, IEEE, pp. 6570.##[30] A. K. NUTHANAPATI, D. Rao, M. S. Reddy, Indexing Student Performance with Fuzzy Logics Evaluation in Engineering Education, 2018.##[31] T. Takagi, M. Sugeno, Fuzzy identification of systems and its applications to modeling and control, IEEE transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics, No. 1, pp. 116132, 1985.##[32] S.M. Chen, T.K. Li, Evaluating students’ learning achievement based on fuzzy rules with fuzzy reasoning capability, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 43684381, 2011.##[33] H. H. Gorgani, Innovative conceptual design on a tracked robot using TRIZ method for passing narrow obstacles, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 7, 2016. ##]
1

First Principles Derivation of Displacement and Stress Function for ThreeDimensional Elastostatic Problems, and Application to the Flexural Analysis of Thick Circular Plates
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_75012.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.295989.471
1
In this study, stress and displacement functions of the threedimensional theory of elasticity for homogeneous isotropic bodies are derived from first principles from the differential equations of equilibrium, the generalized stress – strain laws and the geometric relations of strain and displacement. It is found that the stress and displacement functions must be biharmonic functions. The derived functions are used to solve the elasticity problem of finding stresses and displacement fields in a thick circular plate with clamped edges for the case of uniformly distributed transverse load over the plate domain. Superposition of second to sixth order Legendre polynomials which are biharmonic functions are used in the thick circular plate problem as the stress function with the unknown constants as the parameters to be determined. Use of the stresses and displacement fields derived in terms of the stress and displacement function yielded the stress fields and displacement fields in terms of the unknown constants of the biharmonic stress function. Enforcement of the boundary conditions yielded the unknown constants, leading to a complete determination of the stress and displacement function for the stress fields and the displacement fields. The solutions obtained are comparable to solutions in the technical literature.
0

184
198


Hyginus Nwankwo
Onah
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nigeria
hyginus.onah@unn.edu.ng


Michael Ebie
Onyia
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nigeria
michael.onyia@unn.edu.ng


Benjamin Okwudili
Mama
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nigeria
benjamin.mama@unn.edu.ng


Clifford Ugochukwu
Nwoji
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nigeria
ugo.nwoji@unn.edu.ng


Charles Chinwuba
Ike
Department of Civil Engineering, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria
Nigeria
ikecc2007@yahoo.com
stress function
displacement function
Biharmonic function
three dimensional elasticity problem
Legendre polynomial
thick circular plate problem
stress fields
displacement fields
[[1] M. Kashtalyan, J.J. Rushchitsky. Revisiting displacement functions in three – dimensional elasticity of inhomogeneous media. International Journal of Solids and Structures, Elsevier Vol 46, pp 3463 – 3470, 2009. journal homepage www.elsevier.com/locate/ijolstr. doi:10.1016/j.ijolstr.2009.06.001.##[2] M. Sutti. Elastic Theory of Plates. www.unigeich/math/folks/sutti/Elastic_Theory of _Plates.pdf. Accessed on 12/03/2019, 2015.##[3] M. Amirpour, R. Das, E.I. Saavedra Flores. Analytical solutions for elastic deformation of functionally graded thick plates with inplane stiffness variation using higher order shear reformation theory. Composites part B: Engineering, Vol 94, pp 109 – 121, 2016. https//doi.org/10.1016/j.composites b.2016.03040.##[4] P.C. Chou, N.J. Pagano. Elasticity. Von Nostrand Princeton, 1967.##[5] G.Z. Voyiadjis, P.I. Kattan. Bending of thick plates on elastic foundation. Advances in the theory of plates and shells. Edited by G.Z. Voyiadjis and D. Karamanlidis. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Amsterdam The Netherlands, 1990.##[6] M. Kashtalyan. Three dimensional elasticity solution for bending of functionally graded rectangular plates. European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 23(5) pp 853 – 864, 2004.##[7] C.C. Ike. First principles derivation of a stress function for axially symmetric elasticity problems, and application to Boussinesq problem. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), Vol 36 No 3, pp. 767 – 772, July 2017. www.nijotech.com. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/nijt.v36i3.15 [Cross Ref].##[8] C.C. Ike, H.N. Onah, C.U. Nwoji. Bessel functions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of the elastic half space soil, a potential function method. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), Vol 36, No 3, pp 773 – 781, July 2017. www.nijotech.com http//dx.doi.org/10.4314/nijtv36i3.16. [Cross Ref].##[9] C.U. Nwoji, H.N. Onah, B.O. Mama, C.C. Ike. Solution of the Boussinesq problem of halfspace using Green and Zerna displacement potential function method. The Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (EJGE) Vol. 22 Bundle 11, (22.11) pp 4304 – 4314, 2017. Available at www.ejge.com.##[10] C.C. Ike, B.O. Mama, H.N. Onah, C.U. Nwoji. Trefftz harmonic function method for solving Boussinesq problem. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (EJGE), (22.12) pp 45894601, 2017. Available at www.ejge.com.##[11] C.U. Nwoji, H.N. Onah, B.O. Mama, C.C. Ike. Solution of elastic half space problem using Boussinesq displacement potential functions. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences (AJAS), Vol 5, Issue 5, pp. 1100 – 1106. October 2017. ISSN: 23210893.##[12] C.C. Ike. Hankel transform method for solving axisymmetric elasticity problems of circular foundation on semiinfinite soils. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET), Vol 10, No 2, pp. 549 – 564, Apr – May 2018. DoI:10.21817/ijet/2018/v10.i.2/181002111. eISSN: 09754024, pISSN: 23198613.##[13] C.C. Ike. General solutions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of elastic half space using Hankel transform method. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET), Vol 10, No 2, pp. 565 – 580, Apr – May 2018. DoI: 10.21817/ijet/2018/v10i2/181002112.##[14] C.C. Ike. Fourier – Bessel transform method for finding vertical stress fields in axisymmetric elasticity problems of elastic half space involving circular foundation areas. Advances in Modelling and Analysis A (AMA A) Vol 55, No 4, pp. 207 – 216, Dec. 2018. https//doi.org/10.18208/ama_a550405.##[15] C.C. Ike. Hankel transformation method for solving the Westergaard problem for point, line and distributed loads on elastic halfspace. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures (LAJSS), Vol 16, No 1, pp 1 – 19, 2019. eISSN: 16797825, pISSN: 16797817. DoI: http:/dx.doi.org/10.1590/167978255313.##[16] H.N. Onah, C.C. Ike, C.U. Nwoji, B.O. Mama. Theory of elasticity solution for stress fields in semiinfinite linear elastic soil due to distributed load on the boundary using the Fourier transform method. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (EJGE), (22.13), pp. 4945 – 4962, 2017. Available at www.ejge.com.##[17] H.N. Onah, B.O. Mama, C.U. Nwoji, C.C. Ike. Boussinesq displacement potential functions method for finding vertical stresses and displacement fields due to distributed load on elastic half space. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (EJGE), (22.15), pp. 5687 – 5709, 2017. Available at www.ejge.com.##[18] C.C. Ike. Fourier sine transform method for solving the Cerrutti problem of the elastic half plane in plane strain. Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering (MMCE) Vol 14, No 1, pp. 1 – 11, 2018. Doi:10.2478/mmce20180001. [Cross Ref].##[19] C.C. Ike. Kantorovich – Euler Lagrange – Galerkin method for bending analysis of thin plates. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), Vol 36, No 2, pp. 351 – 360, April 2017. www.nijotech.com http//dx.doi.org/10.4314/nijt/v36i2.5 [Cross Ref].##[20] C.C. Ike. On Maxwell’s stress function for solving three dimensional elasticity problems in the theory of elasticity. Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics (JCAMECH), Vol 49, Issue 2, pp. 342 – 350, Dec 2018. DoI: 10.22059/jcamech.2018.266787.330.##[21] C.C. Ike. Mathematical solutions for the flexural analysis of Mindlin’s first order shear deformable circular plates. Mathematical Models in Engineering, Vol 4, Issue 2, pp. 50 – 72, June 2018. DOI: https//doi.org/10.21595/mme.2018.19825 [Cross Ref].##[22] C.C. Ike. Equilibrium approach in the derivation of differential equations for homogeneous isotropic Mindlin plates. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), Vol 36, No 2, pp 346 – 350, April 2017. www.nijotech.com http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/nijtv36i2.4 [Cross Ref].##[23] C.C. Ike. Variational formulation of the Mindlin plate on Winkler foundation problem. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (EJGE), 22.12, pp 4829 4846, 2017. Available at www.ejge.com.##[24] C.C. Ike. Flexural analysis of Kirchhoff paltes on Winkler foundations using finite Fourier sine integral transform method. Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems (MMEP), Vol 4, No 4, pp 145 – 154. Dec 2017. DoI: 10.18280/mmep.040402. eISSN: 23690747 pISSN 23690739.##[25] C.C. Ike, C.U. Nwoji, E.U. Ikwueze, I.O. Ofondu. Bending analysis of simply supported rectangular Kirchhoff plates under linearly distributed transverse load. Explorematics Journal of Innovative Engineering and Technology (EJIET), Vol 01, No 01, pp 28 – 36, September, 2017.##[26] C.C. Ike, C.U. Nwoji, I.O. Ofondu. Variational formulation of Mindlin plate equation and solution for deflections of clamped Mindlin plates. International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering (IJRASET), Vol 5, Issue 1, pp. 340 – 353, January 2017.##[27] C.C. Ike, B.O. Mama. Kantorovich variational method for the flexural analysis of CSCS Kirchhoff – Love plates. Journal of Mathematical Models in Engineering (JVEMME), Vol 4, Issue 1, pp 29 – 41, 2018. eISSN: 24244627 pISSN: 23515279. DoI: https//doi.org/10.21595/mme.2018.19750.##[28] C.C. Ike, C.U. Nwoji. Kantorovich method for the determination of eigen frequencies of thin rectangular plates. Explorematics Journal of Innovative engineering and Technology (EJIET), Vol 01, No 01, pp. 20 – 27, September 2017.##[29] C.U. Nwoji, H.N. Onah, B.O. Mama, C.C. Ike. Theory of elasticity formulation of the Mindlin plate equations. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET), Vol 9, No 6, Dec 2017 – Jan 2018 pp 4344 – 4352, 2017. DoI: 10.21817/ijet/2017/v9i6/170906074.##[30] C.U. Nwoji, H.N. Onah, B.O. Mama, C.C. Ike. Ritz variational method for bending of rectangular Kirchhoff – Love plates under transverse hydrostatic load distribution. Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems (MMEP), Vol 5, No 1, pp. 1 – 10, March 2018. https//doi.org/10.18280/mmep.050101.##[31] C.U. Nwoji, H.N. Onah, B.O. Mama, C.C. Ike, E.U. Ikwueze. Elastic buckling analysis of simply supported thin plates using double finite Fourier sine integral transform method. Explorematics Journal of Innovative Engineering and Technology (EJIET), Vol 01, No 01, pp. 37 – 47, September 2017.##[32] C.U. Nwoji, B.O. Mama, H.N. Onah, C.C. Ike. Kantorovich – Vlasov method for simply supported plates under uniformly distributed loads. International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science (IJCMES), Vol 3, Issue 2, pp. 69 – 77, March – April 2017. http//dx.doi.org/1024001/ijcmes.3.2.1. ISSN: 24555304 [CrossRef].##[33] C.U. Nwoji, B.O. Mama, H.N. Onah, C.C. Ike. Flexural analysis of simply supported rectangular Mindlin plates under bisinusoidal transverse load. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol 13, No 15, pp. 4480 – 4488, August 2018. ISSN: 18196608.##[34] C.U. Nwoji, B.O. Mama, C.C. Ike, H.N. Onah. GalerkinVlasov method for the flexural analysis of rectangular Kirchhoff plates with clamped and simply supported edges. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSRJMCE), Vol 14, Issue 2, Version 1, pp. 61 – 74, March – April, 2017. DOI:109790/16841402016174 eISSN: 22785728 www.iosrjournals.org. [Cross Ref].##[35] E. Reissner. On the theory of bending of elastic plates. Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Vol 23, pp. 184 – 191, 1944.##[36] E. Reissner. The effect of shear deformation on the bending of elastic plates. Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol 12, pp. 69 – 75, 1945.##[37] S.G. Lekhnitskii. Anisotropic Plate. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1968.##[38] P.S. Gujar, K.B. Ladhane. Bending analysis of simply supported and clamped circular plates. SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG IJCE), Vol 2, Issue 5, pp. 44 – 51, May 2015. ISSN: 23488352. www.internationaljournalsssrg.org.##[39] N.N. Osadebe, C.C. Ike, H. Onah, C.U. Nwoji, F.O. Okafor. Application of the Galerkin – Vlasov method to the flexural analysis of simply supported rectangular Kirchhoff plates under uniform loads. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), Vol 35, No 4, pp. 732 – 738, October 2016. http//dx.doi.org/10.4314/nijtv35i4.6 [Cross Ref].##[40] B.O. Mama, C.C. Ike, H.N. Onah, C.U. Nwoji. Analysis of rectangular Kirchhoff plate on Winkler foundation using finite Fourier sine transform method. IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSRJM), Vol 13, Issue 1, Version VI, pp. 58 – 66, January – February 2017. DOI:10.9790/57281301065866 www.iosrjournals.org [Cross Ref].##[41] B.O. Mama, C.U. Nwoji, C.C. Ike, H.N. Onah. Analysis of simply supported rectangular Kirchhoff plates by the finite Fourier sine transform method. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS), Vol 4, Issue 3, pp. 285 – 291, March 2017. https//dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijars.4.3.44 [Cross Ref].##[42] H.N. Onah, B.O. Mama, C.C. Ike, C.U. Nwoji. Kantorovich – Vlasov method for the flexural analysis of Kirchhoff plates with opposite edges clamped and simply supported (CSCS plates). International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET), Vol 9, No 6, Dec 2017 – Jan 2018 pp 4333 – 4343, 2017. DoI: 10.21817/ijet/2017/v9i6/170906073.##[43] S.G. Lekhitskiy. Theory of anisotropic thick plates. ANSSSR Izvestiya Mekhanika 1. Mashinostroyeniye (Academy of Sciences of the USSR News. Mechanics and Machine Building) No 2 1959, pp. 142 – 145, 1959. Translated by D. Koolbeck/TDBRS3 Translation Division Foreign Technology Division WPAFB. Ohio.##[44] S.P. Timoshenko, J.N. Goodier. Theory of Elasticity. (Third Edition) McGraw Hill New York, 1970.##[45] H.J. Ding, R.Q. Xu, F.L. Guo. Exact axisymmetric solution of laminated transversely isotropic piezoelectric circular plates (II) – Exact solution for elastic circular plates and numerical results. Science in China (Series E) Vol 42, pp. 470 – 478, 1999.##[46] J.Z. Luo, T.G. Liu, T. Zhang. Three dimensional linear analysis for composite axially symmetrical circular plate. International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol 41 pp. 3689 – 3706, 2004.##[47] H.J. Ding, D.J. Huang, H.M. Wang. Analytical solution for fixed end beam subjected to uniform load. Journal of Zhejiang University (SCIENCE), 6A(8), pp. 779783, 2005.##[48] H.J. Ding, X.Y. Lee, W.Q. Chen. Analytical solutions for a uniformly loaded circular plate with clamped edges. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE, Vol 6A, Issue 10, pp. 11631168, 2005. ISSN: 10093095 http//www.zju.edu.cn/jzus.##[49] H. Ding, W. Chen, L. Zhang. Elasticity of transversely isotropic materials. 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Elasticity solutions for a transversely isotropic functionally graded circular plate subject to an axisymmetric transverse load qrk. International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol 45, (2008), pp. 191 – 210, 2008. doi:10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2007.07.023. www.elsevier.com/locate/ijsolstr.##[55] K. Chandrashekhara. Theory of Plates. Universities Press (India) Limited ISBN 8173712530, 9788173712531 410pp, 2001.##[56] H.A. Elliot. Three dimensional stress distributions in hexagonal aeolotroic crystals. Proceedings of Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44 pp. 522 – 533, 1948.##[57] H. Hu. On the three – dimensional problems of the theory of elasticity of a transversely isotropic body. Acta Scientia Sinica 2(2), pp. 145 – 151, 1953.##[58] R.P. Shimpi. Refined plate theory and its variants. AIAA Journal, Vol 40, pp 137 – 146, 2002.##[59] M. Danesh, A. Farajpour, M. Mohammadi. Axial vibration analysis of a tapered nanorod based on nonlocal elasticity theory and differential quadrature method” Mechanics Research Communications, Vol 39 No 1, pp 2327, January 2012. DOI:10.1016/j.mechrescom.2011.09.004.##[60] M. Mohammadi, M. Hosseini, M. Shishesaz, A. Hadi, A. Rastgoo. Primary and secondary resonance analysis of porous functionally graded nanobeam resting on a nonlinear foundation subjected to mechanical and electrical loads. European Journal of Mechanics – A / Solids, Vol 77, Sept – Oct 2019, 103793, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechsol.2019.05.008.##[61] M. Mohammadi, A. Rastgoo. Nonlinear vibration analysis of the viscoelastic composite nanoplate with three directionally imperfect porous FG core. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol 69 No 2, pp 131143, 2019. DOI:10.12989/sem.2019.69.2.131##[62] M. Mohammadi, A Rastgoo. 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1

Attractor Based Analysis of Centrally Cracked Plate Subjected to Chaotic Excitation
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_66038.html
10.22059/jcamech.2018.247631.218
1
The presence of partthrough cracks with limited length is one of the prevalent defects in the plate structures. Due to the slight effect of this type of damages on the frequency response of the plates, conventional vibrationbased damage assessment could be a challenging task. In this study for the first time, a recently developed statespace method which is based on the chaotic excitation is implemented and nonlinear prediction error (NPE) is proposed as a geometrical feature to analyze the chaotic attractor of a centrally cracked plate. For this purpose using line spring method (LSM) a nonlinear multidegree of freedom model of part through cracked rectangular plate is developed. Tuning of Lorenz type chaotic signal is conducted by crossing of the Lyapunov exponents’ spectrums of nonlinear model of the plate and chaotic signal and in the next step by varying the tuning parameter to find a span in which a tangible sensitivity in the NPE could be observable. Damage characteristics such as length, depth and angle of crack are altered and variation of proposed feature is scrutinized. Results show that by implementation of the tuned chaotic signal, tangible sensitivity and also near to monotonic behavior of NPE versus damage intensity are achievable. Finally, the superiority of the proposed method is examined through the comparison with the frequencybased method.
0

199
212


Sina
Jalili
Mechanical Engineering School, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
sjalili@sut.ac.ir


Alireza
Daneshmehr
Mechanical Engineering School, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
daneshmehr@ut.ac.ir
Crack
chaotic
nonlinear dynamics
plate
prediction error
[[1] J. R. Rice and N. Levy, "The partthrough surface crack in an elastic plate," Journal of applied mechanics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 185194, 1972.##[2] P. Joseph and F. Erdogan, "Surface crack in a plate under antisymmetric loading conditions," International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 725750, 1991.##[3] Y. S. Wen and Z. Jin, "On the equivalent relation of the line spring model: A suggested modification," Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 7582, 1987.##[4] Z. ZhaoJing and D. ShuHo, "Stress intensity factors for an inclined surface crack under biaxial stress state," Engineering fracture mechanics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 281289, 1994.##[5] F. Delale, "Cracked shells under skewsymmetric loading," International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 13251347, 1982.##[6] Z.Q. Cheng and J. Reddy, "Green’s functions for an anisotropic thin plate with a crack or an anticrack," International journal of engineering science, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 271289, 2004.##[7] A. Israr, M. P. Cartmell, E. Manoach, I. Trendafilova, M. Krawczuk, and Ĺ. Arkadiusz, "Analytical modeling and vibration analysis of partially cracked rectangular plates with different boundary conditions and loading," Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 76, no. 1, p. 011005, 2009.##[8] H. M. Berger, "A new approach to the analysis of large deflections of plates," 1954.##[9] R. Ismail and M. Cartmell, "An investigation into the vibration analysis of a plate with a surface crack of variable angular orientation," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 331, no. 12, pp. 29292948, 2012.##[10] T. Bose and A. Mohanty, "Vibration analysis of a rectangular thin isotropic plate with a partthrough surface crack of arbitrary orientation and position," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 332, no. 26, pp. 71237141, 2013.##[11] T. Li, X. Zhu, Y. Zhao, and X. Hu, "The wave propagation and vibrational energy flow characteristics of a plate with a partthrough surface crack," International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 10251037, 2009.##[12] T. Kuroiwa and H. Iemura, "Vibrationbased damage detection using time series analysis," in The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2008, pp. 1217.##[13] I. Trendafilova and E. Manoach, "Vibrationbased damage detection in plates by using time series analysis," Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 10921106, 2008.##[14] E. Figueiredo, M. D. Todd, C. R. Farrar, and E. Flynn, "Autoregressive modeling with statespace embedding vectors for damage detection under operational variability," International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 822834, 2010.##[15] J. Nichols, S. Trickey, M. Todd, and L. Virgin, "Structural health monitoring through chaotic interrogation," Meccanica, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 239250, 2003.##[16] J. Nichols, M. Todd, M. Seaver, and L. Virgin, "Use of chaotic excitation and attractor property analysis in structural health monitoring," Physical Review E, vol. 67, no. 1, p. 016209, 2003.##[17] J. Ryue and P. White, "The detection of cracks in beams using chaotic excitations," Journal of sound and vibration, vol. 307, no. 3, pp. 627638, 2007.##[18] B. I. Epureanu, S.H. Yin, and M. M. Derriso, "Highsensitivity damage detection based on enhanced nonlinear dynamics," Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 321, 2005.##[19] S. Torkamani, E. A. Butcher, M. D. Todd, and G. Park, "Hyperchaotic probe for damage identification using nonlinear prediction error," Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 29, pp. 457473, 2012.##[20] H. Makvandi, S. Moradi, D. Poorveis, and K. H. Shirazi, "A new approach for nonlinear vibration analysis of thin and moderately thick rectangular plates under inplane compressive load," Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, 2017.##[21] R. Javidi, M. Moghimi Zand, and K. Dastani, "Dynamics of Nonlinear rectangular plates subjected to an orbiting mass based on shear deformation plate theory," Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, 2017.##[22] M. Shishesaz, M. Kharazi, P. Hosseini and M. Hosseini, "Buckling Behavior of Composite Plates with a Precentral Circular Delamination Defect under inPlane Uniaxial Compression," Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 111122, 2017.## [23] S. H. Strogatz, Nonlinear dynamics and chaos: with applications to physics, biology, chemistry, and engineering. Westview press, 2014.##[24] J. L. Kaplan and J. A. Yorke, "Chaotic behavior of multidimensional difference equations," in Functional Differential equations and approximation of fixed points: Springer, 1979, pp. 204227.##[25] L. Y. Chang, K. A. Erickson, K. G. Lee, and M. D. Todd, "Structural Damage Detection using Chaotic Time Series Excitation," in Proceedings of the 22st IMAC Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2004.##[26] A. Wolf, J. B. Swift, H. L. Swinney, and J. A. Vastano, "Determining Lyapunov exponents from a time series," Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 285317, 1985.##]
1

Simultaneous hydroforming of bulge and Tzone in 304 stainless steel and 70/30 brass tubes
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_77016.html
10.22059/jcamech.2019.270658.346
1
Hydroforming process is largely used for the production of tubular parts in various industries, and has advantages such as less weight, higher quality, more strength and fewer production cost compared to the conventional methods of production. The aim of this study is forming a tubeshaped part with a special geometry that has both bulge and Tzones with tube hydroforming process. The forming operations were performed on 304 stainless steel and 70/30 brass tubes, and a finite element (FE) model was used to achieve the best forming conditions. To validate FE model, firstly, several experimental tests were performed with different process parameters, and then the results were compared with the FE model in terms of the formed profile and the distribution of thickness. After validation of FE model, various pressure paths were studied and the best one between them was chosen. Finally, the part was formed correctly by the selected pressure path without defects like wrinkling or tearing, and the desired geometry was fully filled.
0

213
230


afshin
ashofteh
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
a.ashofteh@ut.ac.ir


Mahmoud
Mosavi Mashhadi
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
mmosavi@ut.ac.ir


sana
seifollahpour
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
s.seif@ut.ac.ir
Tube Hydroforming
FE simulation
pressure path
bulge zone
Tway
[[1] P. Thanakijkasem, A. Pattarangkun, S. Mahabunphachai, V. Uthaisangsuk, S. Chutima, Comparative study of finite element analysis in tube hydroforming of stainless steel 304, International Journal of Automotive Technology, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 611617, August 01, 2015.##[2] N. Abedrabbo, M. A. Zampaloni, F. Pourboghrat, Wrinkling control in aluminum sheet hydroforming, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 333358, 2005/03/01/, 2005.##[3] L. H. Lang, Z. R. Wang, D. C. Kang, S. J. Yuan, S. H. Zhang, J. Danckert, K. B. Nielsen, Hydroforming highlights: sheet hydroforming and tube hydroforming, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 151, No. 1, pp. 165177, 2004/09/01/, 2004.##[4] T. Intarakumthornchai, Y. AueULan, R. Kesvarakul, S. Jirathearanat, Feasible pressure and axial feed path determination for fuel filler tube hydroforming by genetic algorithm, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Vol. 229, No. 4, pp. 623630, 2015.##[5] W. Zhuang, S. Wang, J. Cao, J. Lin, C. Hartl, Modelling of localised thinning features in the hydroforming of microtubes using the crystalplasticity FE method, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 47, No. 9, pp. 859865, April 01, 2010.##[6] A. Alaswad, K. Y. Benyounis, A. G. Olabi, Tube hydroforming process: A reference guide, Materials & Design, Vol. 33, pp. 328339, 2012/01/01/, 2012.##[7] G. N. Chu, G. Liu, W. J. Liu, S. J. Yuan, An approach to improve thickness uniformity within tailorwelded tube hydroforming, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 60, No. 9, pp. 12471253, June 01, 2012.##[8] R. Hashemi, M. B. Shirin, M. Einolghozati, A. Assempour, A different approach to estimate the process parameters in tube hydroforming, International Journal of Material Forming, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 355366, July 01, 2015.##[9] C. Han, H. Feng, L. D. Yan, S. J. Yuan, Thickness improvement in nonhomogeneous tube hydroforming of a rectangular component by contact sequence, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 92, No. 5, pp. 26672675, September 01, 2017.##[10] N. Abedrabbo, N. Zafar, R. Averill, F. Pourboghrat, R. Sidhu, 2004, Optimization of a Tube Hydroforming Process,##[11] B. Teng, K. Li, S. Yuan, Optimization of loading path in hydroforming Tshape using fuzzy control algorithm, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 69, No. 5, pp. 10791086, November 01, 2013.##[12] Y.l. Ge, X.x. Li, L.h. Lang, S.w. Ruan, Optimized design of tube hydroforming loading path using multiobjective differential evolution, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 837846, January 01, 2017.##[13] A. Ben Abdessalem, A. ElHami, Global sensitivity analysis and multiobjective optimisation of loading path in tube hydroforming process based on metamodelling techniques, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 71, No. 5, pp. 753773, March 01, 2014.##[14] A. Abdelkefi, P. Malécot, N. Boudeau, N. Guermazi, N. Haddar, On the tube hydroforming process using rectangular, trapezoidal, and trapezoidsectional dies: modeling and experiments, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 93, No. 5, pp. 17251735, November 01, 2017.##[15] R. Di Lorenzo, G. Ingarao, F. Chinesta, Integration of gradient based and response surface methods to develop a cascade optimisation strategy for Yshaped tube hydroforming process design, Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 336348, 2010/02/01/, 2010.##[16] Z. Yu, Q. Kong, C. Ma, Z. Lin, Theoretical and experimental study on formability of laser seamed tube hydroforming, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 305315, October 01, 2014.##[17] G. Faraji, R. Hashemi, M. M. Mashhadi, A. F. Dizaji, V. Norouzifard, Hydroforming Limits in Metal Bellows Forming Process, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 25, No. 12, pp. 14131417, 2010/12/03, 2010.##[18] L. Yang, G. Hu, J. Liu, Investigation of forming limit diagram for tube hydroforming considering effect of changing strain path, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 79, No. 5, pp. 793803, July 01, 2015.##[19] Y. P. Korkolis, S. Kyriakides, Hydroforming of anisotropic aluminum tubes: Part II analysis, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 8390, 2011/02/01/, 2011.##[20] Korkolis, S. Kyriakides, Hydroforming of anisotropic aluminum tubes: Part I experiments, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 7582, 2011/02/01/, 2011.##[21] M. Mirzaali, S. M. H. Seyedkashi, G. H. Liaghat, H. Moslemi Naeini, K. Shojaee G, Y. H. Moon, Application of simulated annealing method to pressure and force loading optimization in tube hydroforming process, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 7884, 2012/02/01/, 2012.##[22] W. Zhuang, S. Wang, J. Lin, D. Balint, C. Hartl, Experimental and numerical investigation of localized thinning in hydroforming of microtubes, European Journal of Mechanics  A/Solids, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 6776, 2012/01/01/, 2012.##[23] M. Koç, Y. Aueulan, T. Altan, On the characteristics of tubular materials for hydroforming—experimentation and analysis, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 761772, 2001/04/01/, 2001.##[24] M. G. Stout, K. P. Staudhammer, Biaxial deformation of 7030 brass: Flow behaviors, texture, microstructures, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 15, No. 8, pp. 1607, August 01, 1984. ##]
1

Analytical buckling and postbuckling characteristics of Mindlin micro composite plate with central opening by use of nonlocal elasticity theory
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_77017.html
10.22059/jcamech.2019.272602.351
1
The effect of central opening on the buckling and nonlinear postbuckling response of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced micro composite plate embedded in elastic medium is considered in this paper. It is assumed that the system is surrounded by elastic medium, therefore; the influence of Pasternak foundation on buckling and postbuckling behavior are analyzed. In order to derive the basic formulations of plate the Mindlin plate theory is applied. Furthermore, nonlocal elasticity theory is applied to consider the sizedependent effect. Analytical approach and NewtonRaphson iterative technique are utilized to calculate the impact of cut out on the buckling and nonlinear postbuckling response of micro composite plate. The variation of buckling and postbuckling of micro composite cut out plate based on some significant parameters such as volume fraction of CNTs, small scale parameter, aspect ratio, square cut out and elastic medium were discussed in details. According to the results, it is concluded that the aspect ratio and length of square cut out have negative effect on buckling and postbuckling response of micro composite plate. Furthermore, existence of CNTs in system causes improvement in the buckling and postbuckling behavior of plate. Meanwhile, considering elastic medium increases the buckling and postbuckling load of system.
0

231
238


Majid
Jamali
School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
majid_jamali@mecheng.iust.ac.ir


Taghi
Shojaee
School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ta_shojaee@cmps2.iust.ac.ir


Bijan
Mohammadi
School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
bijan_mohammadi@iust.ac.ir
Buckling and nonlinear Postbuckling analysis
micro composite plate
Central opening
Elastic medium
Mindlin plate theory
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Rastgoo, Bending analysis of bidirectional functionally graded EulerBernoulli nanobeams using integral form of Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 67, No. 4, pp. 417425, 2018.##[14] A. Farajpour, A. Arab Solghar, A. Shahidi, Postbuckling analysis of multilayered graphene sheets under nonuniform biaxial compression, Physica E: Lowdimensional Systems and Nanostructures, Vol. 47, pp. 197206, 2013/01/01/, 2013.##[15] K. F. Wang, B. L. Wang, Effect of surface energy on the nonlinear postbuckling behavior of nanoplates, International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics, Vol. 55, pp. 1924, 2013/10/01/, 2013.##[16] A. Naderi, A. R. Saidi, Nonlocal postbuckling analysis of graphene sheets in a nonlinear polymer medium, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 81, pp. 4965, 2014/08/01/, 2014.##[17] M. Akbarzadeh Khorshidi, M. Shariati, S. A. Emam, Postbuckling of functionally graded nanobeams based on modified couple stress theory under general beam theory, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 110, pp. 160169, 2016/05/01/, 2016.##[18] S. Sahmani, M. M. Aghdam, M. Bahrami, Sizedependent axial buckling and postbuckling characteristics of cylindrical nanoshells in different temperatures, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 107, pp. 170179, 2016/03/01/, 2016.##[19] H. Wu, S. Kitipornchai, J. Yang, Thermal buckling and postbuckling of functionally graded graphene nanocomposite plates, Materials & Design, Vol. 132, pp. 430441, 2017/10/15/, 2017.##[20] S. Thai, H.T. Thai, T. P. Vo, S. Lee, Postbuckling analysis of functionally graded nanoplates based on nonlocal theory and isogeometric analysis, Composite Structures, Vol. 201, pp. 1320, 2018/10/01/, 2018.##[21] Y. M. Ghugal, A. S. 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Mashhadi, Nonlocal postbuckling analysis of graphene sheets with initial imperfection based on first order shear deformation theory, Results in Physics, Vol. 7, pp. 12991307, 2017/01/01/, 2017.##[26] A. Daneshmehr, A. Rajabpoor, A. Hadi, Size dependent free vibration analysis of nanoplates made of functionally graded materials based on nonlocal elasticity theory with high order theories, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 95, pp. 2335, 2015.##[27] A. Ghorbanpour Arani, M. Jamali, M. Mosayyebi, R. Kolahchi, Wave propagation in FGCNTreinforced piezoelectric composite micro plates using viscoelastic quasi3D sinusoidal shear deformation theory, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 95, pp. 209224, 2016/06/15/, 2016.##[28] H. Akhavan, S. Hosseini Hashemi, H. R. Damavandi Taher, A. Alibeigloo, S. Vahabi, Exact solutions for rectangular Mindlin plates under inplane loads resting on Pasternak elastic foundation. Part I: Buckling analysis, Computational Materials Science, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 968978, 2009/01/01/, 2009.##[29] S. H. Hashemi, A. T. Samaei, Buckling analysis of micro/nanoscale plates via nonlocal elasticity theory, Physica E: Lowdimensional Systems and Nanostructures, Vol. 43, No. 7, pp. 14001404, 2011/05/01/, 2011.##[30] A. T. Samaei, S. Abbasion, M. M. Mirsayar, Buckling analysis of a singlelayer graphene sheet embedded in an elastic medium based on nonlocal Mindlin plate theory, Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 38, No. 7, pp. 481485, 2011/10/01/, 2011.##[31] A. C. Eringen, 2002, Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories,##[32] A. Ghorbanpour Arani, M. Jamali, A. H. GhorbanpourArani, R. Kolahchi, M. Mosayyebi, Electromagneto wave propagation analysis of viscoelastic sandwich nanoplates considering surface effects, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 231, No. 2, pp. 387403, 2017/01/01, 2016.##[33] R. 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1

Analytical and Numerical Investigation of Second Grade Magnetohydrodynamics Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_77018.html
10.22059/jcamech.2019.278610.377
1
In this paper, the steady laminar boundary layer flow of nonNewtonian second grade conducting fluid past a permeable stretching sheet, under the influence of a uniform magnetic field is studied. Three different methods are applied for solving the problem; numerical Finite Element Method (FEM), analytical Collocation Method (CM) and 4th order RungeKutta numerical method. The FlexPDE software package is used for modeling and solving the problem by FEM. In most new analytical methods used for solving nonlinear equations, it is impossible to solve problems with infinity boundary conditions. In this article by using a special technique, the infinity boundary condition transformed to a finite one, then the governing equation solved analytically. In the physical aspect, the effects of the nonNewtonian, magnetic and permeability parameters on the velocity distribution have been investigated. As a result, the present suggested technique can be used for the analytical solution of many such problems with infinite boundary conditions. Moreover, the comparison between the results obtained from our modified analytical method and numerical solutions shows an excellent agreement.
0

239
246


Mohsen
Javanmard
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran
Iran
mohsenjavanmard61@gmail.com


Mohammad Hasan
Taheri
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran
Iran
hasan.taheri@gmail.com


Morteza
Abbasi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran
Iran
1mortezaabbasi@gmail.com
Collocation Method
finite element method
FlexPDE
Magnetohydrodynamics
Permeable Stretching Sheet
[[1] K. Vajravelu, T. Roper, Flow and heat transfer in a second grade fluid over a stretching sheet, International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics, Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 10311036, 1999/11/01, 1999.##[2] M. Massoudi, Boundary layer flow of a second grade fluid with variable heat flux at the wall, Appl. Math. Comput., Vol. 143, No. 23, pp. 201212, 2003.##[3] K. Vajravelu, D. Rollins, Hydromagnetic flow of a second grade fluid over a stretching sheet, Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 148, No. 3, pp. 783791, 1/30/, 2004.##[4] R. Cortell, Flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting fluid of second grade over a stretching sheet subject to suction and to a transverse magnetic field, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 49, No. 11–12, pp. 18511856, 6//, 2006.##[5] M. Sajid, T. Hayat, S. Asghar, On the analytic solution of the steady flow of a fourth grade fluid, Physics Letters A, Vol. 355, No. 1, pp. 1826, 6/19/, 2006.##[6] V. Marinca, N. Herişanu, C. Bota, B. Marinca, An optimal homotopy asymptotic method applied to the steady flow of a fourthgrade fluid past a porous plate, Applied Mathematics Letters, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 245251, 2//, 2009.##[7] M. Sajid, R. Mahmood, T. Hayat, Finite element solution for flow of a third grade fluid past a horizontal porous plate with partial slip, Computers & Mathematics with Applications, Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 12361244, 9//, 2008.##[8] S. Aïboud, S. Saouli, Second Law Analysis of Viscoelastic Fluid over a Stretching Sheet Subject to a Transverse Magnetic Field with Heat and Mass Transfer, Entropy, Vol. 12, No. 8, pp. 1867, 2010.##[9] B. Sahoo, Effects of slip on sheetdriven flow and heat transfer of a nonNewtonian fluid past a stretching sheet, Computers & Mathematics with Applications, Vol. 61, No. 5, pp. 14421456, 3//, 2011.##[10] B. I. Olajuwon, Convection heat and mass transfer in a hydromagnetic flow of a second grade fluid in the presence of thermal radiation and thermal diffusion, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 377382, 3//, 2011.##[11] S. Islam, Z. Bano, I. Siddique, A. M. Siddiqui, The optimal solution for the flow of a fourthgrade fluid with partial slip, Computers & Mathematics with Applications, Vol. 61, No. 6, pp. 15071516, 3//, 2011.##[12] B. Sahoo, S. Poncet, Flow and heat transfer of a third grade fluid past an exponentially stretching sheet with partial slip boundary condition, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 54, No. 23–24, pp. 50105019, 11//, 2011.##[13] A. Aziz, T. Aziz, MHD flow of a third grade fluid in a porous half space with plate suction or injection: An analytical approach, Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 218, No. 21, pp. 1044310453, 7/1/, 2012.##[14] M. Hosseini, Z. Sheikholeslami, D. D. Ganji, NonNewtonian fluid flow in an axisymmetric channel with porous wall, Propulsion and Power Research, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 254262, 12//, 2013.##[15] T. Gul, S. Islam, R. A. Shah, I. Khan, S. Shafie, M. A. Khan, Analysis of thin film flow over a vertical oscillating belt with a second grade fluid, Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 207217, 6//, 2015.##[16] T. E. Akinbobola, S. S. Okoya, The flow of second grade fluid over a stretching sheet with variable thermal conductivity and viscosity in the presence of heat source/sink, Journal of the Nigerian Mathematical Society, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 331342, 12//, 2015.##[17] M. Mustafa, Viscoelastic Flow and Heat Transfer over a NonLinearly Stretching Sheet: OHAM Solution, Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 13211328, 2016.##[18] S. M. Ebrahimi, M. Javanmard, M. H. Taheri, M. Barimani, Heat transfer of fourthgrade fluid flow in the plane duct under an externally applied magnetic field with convection on walls, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 128–129, pp. 564571, 8//, 2017.##[19] P. G. Moakher, M. Abbasi, M. Khaki, Fully developed flow of fourth grade fluid through the channel with slip condition in the presence of a magnetic field, Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 22392245, 2016.##[20] R. S. Rivlin, J. L. Ericksen, StressDeformation Relations for Isotropic Materials, in: G. I. Barenblatt, D. D. Joseph, Collected Papers of R.S. Rivlin: Volume I and II, Eds., pp. 9111013, New York, NY: Springer New York, 1997.##[21] J. E. Dunn, R. L. Fosdick, Thermodynamics, stability, and boundedness of fluids of complexity 2 and fluids of second grade, Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 191252, 1974.##[22] S. A. R. Sahebi, H. Pourziaei, A. R. Feizi, M. H. Taheri, Y. Rostamiyan, D. D. Ganji, Numerical analysis of natural convection for nonNewtonian fluid conveying nanoparticles between two vertical parallel plates, The European Physical Journal Plus, Vol. 130, No. 12, pp. 238, 2015.##[23] P. G. Moakhar, M. Abbasi, M. Khaki, Fully Developed Flow of Fourth Grade Fluid through the Channel with Slip Condition in the Presence of a Magnetic Field, Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 22392245, 2016.##[24] S. M. Ebrahimi, M. Abbasi, M. Khaki, Fully Developed Flow of ThirdGrade Fluid in the Plane Duct with Convection on the Walls, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 315324, 2016. ##]
1

A brief review on the influences of nanotubes' entanglement and waviness on the mechanical behaviors of CNTR polymer nanocomposites
https://jcamech.ut.ac.ir/article_77019.html
10.22059/jcamech.2020.304476.517
1
Invention of carbon nanotube (CNT) in the 1990s introduced a new class of materials whose extraordinary mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties seemed appealing enough to the research community to devote their time and effort for the purpose of analyzing composite materials reinforced by CNTs. Particularly, the marvelous stiffness of CNTs has made it possible to reach a highmodulus composite once such a nanomaterial is dispersed into various types of matrices. Among all of these products, CNTreinforced (CNTR) polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are used more than the others due to their incredible specific stiffness and fracture toughness. Although PNCs can bring a lot for the designer due to their inherent merits, it must be pointed out that some practical phenomena take place in the microstructure of such advanced materials whose neglecting can be resulted in negative outcomes. Motivated by this reality and based upon the authors broad researches in this area, present review is organized to show how can the mechanical behaviors of PNCs be affected by entanglement of the CNTs inside the inclusions and their wavy shape.
0

247
252


Farzad
Ebrahimi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Iran
febrahimy@gmail.com


Ali
Dabbagh
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran
alii.dabbagh@gmail.com
Carbon nanotube (CNT)
Agglomeration
Waviness
Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs)
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